Ten Yama Kings

Chinese - Judges of the dead. Each of these beings had his own court in the underworld. The first judge, Ts'en-kuang, decided whether the soul should be released to a new life or passed on for judgment; the second, Chi-chiang, held court over the corrupt and incompetent; the third, Sung Ti, dealt with liars; the fourth, Wu Kuan, with misers and the fifth, Yen Wang, with murderers. Atheists were tried in the court of the sixth judge, Pien-ch'eng, while slavers appeared in the seventh ruled by T'ai Shan Kun. The eighth court, ruled by P'ing-teng, judged those who failed to honour their ancestors and the ninth, that of Tu-shih, dealt with arsonists. If they survived the punishments meted out by these courts, souls passed to the tenth and final court where the judge, Chuan Lun, made a decision on their future. Occasionally called Ten Yama Kings, Four Kings of Hell, Four Kings of Hell, Kings of Hell, Kings of Hell, Yama, Yama, Yama, Universal King, Chinese Yen-lo (Wang), Yen Wang, Tibetan Chos-rgyal, gShin-rje, Phyi-sgrub, Emma-O, Shih T'ien-yen-wang, Shih T'ien-yen-wang or Shih Wang.

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