South American Lore, Gods, Demigods, Heroes, Symbols, and Other Famous Mythological Characters

Abaanaui

A culture hero of the Guaraye tribe. Brother of Zaguaguaya. At times, known as Abaanaui.

Abe Mango

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Abira

A creator-god in Colombia. Occasionally known as Abira.

Acan

A Mayan god of wine. At times, known as Acan.

Acclas

Inca devotees serving the god Inti. As priestesses. At times, referred to as Acclas, Chosen Women, Chosen Women, Chosen Woman or Chosen Woman.

achacila

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Acllacuna

Young girls taken from their parents and prepared as sacrificial victims to the Inca gods. Occasionally identified as Acllacuna, Selected Ones or Selected Ones.

acsumama

An Inca spirit controlling the growth of potatoes. In some accounts, called acsumama.

Acuecueyotl

Waves personified. An aspect of Chalchiutlicue. In some references, called Acuecueyotl, Chalchihuitlicue, Chalchihuitlicue, Aiauh, Chalchiutlicue, Chalcitlicue, Emerald Lady, Goddess of the Jade Petticoat, Lady of the Emerald Robe, Apoconalotl, Atlacamani, Altcanals, Jade Skirt or Xixiquipilihui.

Adaheli

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Agnen

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Ai Apaec

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Aimon Kondi

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Akakanet

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Aksak

A Chaco creator deity in the form of a beetle. This being created the first humans. At times, known as Aksak.

Alacita

An annual festival in honour of Ekkekko. Sometimes known as Alacita, Alasita or Alasita.

alecpong

Ancestral stones worshipped in Peru. Occasionally known as alecpong.

alferez

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alphabetical gods

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alto misayoc

High-ranking sorcerers of the Quechua. Also referred to as alto misayoc.

Aluberi

A remote supreme god of the Arawak. American Indians. Occasionally known as Aluberi.

Amalivaca

A culture-hero of the American Indian. Tribes of the Orinoco basin. He instructed his people in the arts of agriculture. Also identified as Amalivaca.

Amana

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Amarum

A demon in the lore of the Quecha, envisaged as a water snake. On occassion, called Amarum.

amautas

Inca wise men, compilers of their. History and legends. In some accounts, called amautas.

Amazons

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Anan

An evil spirit of the Guarani. Also called Anan, Ana, Ana, Anna, Anu, Eire, Eire, Ama, Anith, Anu, Aonach, Eadna, Eirean, Eirin, Eoghana, Eri, Erin, Eriu, Iath, Ith, Momo, Mumham, Nannam, Nanu, Ops, Sibhol, Ama, EireanEoghana, Eri(u), I(a)th, Momo, Nannan, Ops, Sibhd, Tlachtga or Eri.

Anansi-toro

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Anatiwa

A demon in the lore of the Karaya. American Indians. He originated the flood from which the tribe escaped only by the help of Saracura. Known as Anatiwa.

anchanchu

A demon of the Aymara people that is said to cause disease. In some lore, occasionally known as anchanchu, anchanch or anchanch.

Anchimallen

In the lore of the Araucanian tribe, a moon-woman wife of the sun. Also commonly known as Anchimallen.

anchunga

A spirit in Brazil. Many of these demons were destroyed by Ware. In some accounts, known as anchunga.

anhanga

A demon in Brazil, said to steal children. Originally this being was no more than an imp who played tricks on humans. At times, known as anhanga.

Apachita

An Inca guardian spirit of travellers. Also called Apachita, Apacita, Apacita, Apachita or apachita.

apachita

Stone cairns that were revered by the Incas as the home of spirits. In some references, identified as apachita, Apacita, Apacita, Apachita, apachita or Apachita.

Apo

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apo

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Apocatequil

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Apu Ollanta

The story of Ollanta and Curi-Coyllur. Called Apu Ollanta.

apuku

Forest spirits of the Gurana (Surinam). Occasionally known as apuku, Ashanti mmoatia, Ashanti mmoatia, azizan, ijimere, Brazil saci, Brazil saci, mmoatia, Dahomey zizan, Dahomey zizan, Nigeria ijimere or Nigeria ijimere.

Apurimac

A river revered as an oracle. In some lore, occasionally known as Apurimac, Great Speaker or Great Speaker.

Apus

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Aqua

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Arama

In the lore of the Moxos tribe, a sun-god. At times, known as Arama.

Ariconte

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Arkaonyo

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Aroteh

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Asin

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Ataguchu

An Inca creator-god. He told Apocatequil and Piguerao how to escape from the Cave of Refuge. Sometimes identified as Ataguchu, Ataguju or Ataguju.

Atoja

A mountain home of the rain spirits. Occasionally referred to as Atoja, Father Atoja or Father Atoja.

Auchimalgen

A sun-goddess in Chile. Also called Auchimalgen.

Auexotl

One of the leaders of the Aztecs when they left their homeland Aztlan. Occasionally called Auexotl.

auki

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Aunyaina

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Avilix

A Mayan deity who was turned to stone by the light of the sun. On occassion, known as Avilix.

Avya

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Axo-Mama

The Peruvian goddess of the potato harvest. Known as Axo-Mama.

Ayacua

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Ayar Ayca

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Ayar Cachi

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Ayar Manco

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Ayar Oco

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Ayllu

In the lore of the Incas, the souls of the descendants of the pacarina. Also called Ayllu.

aymuray

A Chechua harvest song. Sometimes referred to as aymuray.

azeman

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Bachué

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bakru

Evil little people, made by magic, half. Flesh and blood, half wooden. Identified as bakru.

Beetle

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Bochica

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bope

Evil spirits said to attack the dead. Occasionally referred to as bope.

Boraro

Forest spirits of the Tukano Indians. These beings are said to have no knee joints and have feet that point to the rear. Sometimes known as Boraro.

Botoque

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brujo

A healer among the Quecha. These people are said to be able to cure the sick by invoking the auki. Called brujo.

Buoka

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caapi

A drug, said to have supernatural. Powers, used by shamans. In some accounts, called caapi.

Cachimana

A supreme deity of the tribes of the Orinoco basin. Identified as Cachimana, Cachimé or Cachimé.

Cacy taperere

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Caesars

A fabled city in Chile. This was said to be a city of gold, which will remain invisible until the end of the world. Also known as Caesars.

Caicai

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Caipora

A huge evil spirit of the Amazon. American Indian tribes. Sometimes known as Caipora.

Camu

A culture hero of the Arovac Indians. Occasionally identified as Camu, Arawak Kamu, Arawak Kamu, Kaboi, Kame, Tamu, Zume, Carib Tamu, Carib Tamu, Paraguayan Zume or Paraguayan Zume.

Canicuba

In Columbian lore, evil personified. In some accounts, identified as Canicuba.

Capac

A Peruvian hero or sun-god. Capac was the leader of a force of Chimu that conquered the territory previously ruled by Fempellec. Also called Capac.

Capac Raymi

A feast in honour of Pachacamac held. At the summer solstice. Also identified as Capac Raymi.

Capac Situa

A festival held in September to celebrate the onset of the rainy season. In some accounts, referred to as Capac Situa, Coya Raymi, Coya Raymi, Moon Feast or Moon Feast.

capacocha

Among the Aztecs, a (symbolic). Child sacrifice. Occasionally referred to as capacocha.

Caragabi

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Carancho

A hero of the Choco Indians, sometimes identified as a hawk. Occasionally identified as Carancho.

Carbuncle

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Cari

A legendary Bolivian leader before the rule of the Incas. Also known as Cari.

Caruincho

A fire-god. In some references, known as Caruincho.

Catcitepulz

A sacred mountain of the Aztecs. It was here that Xipe Totec called on the people to repent. On occassion, called Catcitepulz.

Catequil

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Cavillea

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Ccoa

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Ceterni

In Peruvian lore, the wife of Naymlap. Also known as Ceterni.

Ceucy

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Chacha-puma

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Chamalkan

A chief god of the Cakchiquel tribe, envisaged as a bat. In some accounts, identified as Chamalkan.

Chanchu

A war-god of the Yuracare tribe. Also identified as Chanchu.

Chanicuba

In the lore of the tribes of Colombia, the personification of evil. On occassion, called Chanicuba.

Chantico

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Chasca

An Inca goddess of the dawn. Occasionally referred to as Chasca.

Chasca Coyllur

An Inca god, guardian of young girls. Referred to as Chasca Coyllur.

Chenuke

To the Ona tribe of Tierra del Fuego, the personification of evil. This spirit was finally defeated by the hero Kwanyip. In some lore, occasionally identified as Chenuke.

Cherufe

In Araucanian lore, a monster that lives in volcanoes and eats. Human beings. In some references, referred to as Cherufe.

Chhalla

A libation to the gods among the Aymara of Bolivia. Also referred to as Chhalla.

Chia

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Chibchacum

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chichic

A huaca placed in a maize field to protect the crop. Referred to as chichic, huaca, huaca, brother, huacas, compa, huanca or huillca.

Chickaban

A festival in honour of Kukulcan held. At the end of October. Also known as Chickaban.

Children of the Sun

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Chimizapagua

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Chipiripa

A rain-god in Costa Rica. Also known as Chipiripa.

Chonchonyi

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Choque Suso

Wife of Paricaca. Occasionally referred to as Choque Suso.

Citatli

The moon in Aztec lore. Also commonly called Citatli.

Citoc Raymi

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City of the Caesars

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Coca-Mama

A Peruvian goddess of the coca plant. In some accounts, referred to as Coca-Mama.

Cocoa

A cat-god of Peru. It was said that this deity, depicted as a cat, continuously produced streams of hail from its eyes. At times, referred to as Cocoa.

Cocomama

An Inca spirit controlling the growth of the cocao plant. On occassion, called Cocomama.

Coem

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Coeviaca

A culture hero of the Xingu of Brazil. He is regarded as the man who brought fire from the gods. In some lore, occasionally identified as Coeviaca.

Colla

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collahualla

Itinerant medicine men in Bolivia. These people are said to cure diseases using herbal remedies. Also commonly known as collahualla, collahuaya, collahuaya, kollawalla, kollawalla or collhualla.

Collari

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Collasiri

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Comizahual

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Common Mother

The supreme deity of some native. Indian tribes. Sometimes identified as Common Mother.

compa

A huaca placed near an irrigation canal to protect it. In some accounts, called compa, huaca, huaca, brother, huacas, chichic, huanca or huillca.

Con

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Condor

An Inca creator deity. In some references, identified as Condor.

Coniraya

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Contici

An Inca thunder-god. Sometimes identified as Contici.

Conticsi-viracocha

A pre-exisitng creator spirit of the Incas. In some references, called Conticsi-viracocha.

Copacahuana

An idol. This was one of the two idols worshipped by the Incas, representing the spirit of Lake Titicaca. The other was known as Copacati. In some accounts, identified as Copacahuana.

Copacati

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Coquena

A guardian spirit of the vicuna. He is envisaged as a little man dressed all in white. Occasionally referred to as Coquena.

Cotaa

A benevolent spirit of the Mocobi tribe. Occasionally known as Cotaa.

Cotopaxi

A volcano regarded as a sacred mountain. In some accounts, referred to as Cotopaxi.

Creucy

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Cuchaviva

A rainbow-goddess, guardian of the fields and the sick. Wife of Bochica or Sua. On occassion, referred to as Cuchaviva.

Cuero

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Cuichu

An Inca rainbow-god. Sometimes known as Cuichu, Cuichi Supar, Cuichi Supar, Cuihi Supar or Cuihi Supar.

Cuni-Cuni

In the lore of the Guarani, the lake in which stood the island Paititi. Referred to as Cuni-Cuni.

Cupay

An Inca god of death. He was said to seize new-born babies. Occasionally identified as Cupay, Supay or Supay.

Curi-Coyllur

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Curupira

A demon in the lore of Brazil. This being is said to be the protector of animals and walks with upturned feet. Occasionally known as Curupira, Korupira, Korupira or urupira.

Cusco Huanca

One of the 4 sons of Inti, in some accounts. On occassion, identified as Cusco Huanca, Children of the Sun, Children of the Sun, Ayar Ayca, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Manco, Ayar Oco, Inti, Mama Coyo, Mama Huaco, Mama Ipa Qora, Mama Ocllo, Mama Rahua, Pacari, Tahuantin-Suyu-Kapac or Topa Huaco.

Dabiaba

A Colombian water-goddess. Sometimes referred to as Dabiaba.

Dabieciba

A Colombian earth-goddess. At times, referred to as Dabieciba.

Darukavaitere

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day

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de los Incas

A book of Inca history and myths. Written by Garsilasco de le Vega. Occasionally known as de los Incas.

De Soto Hernando

A Spanish explorer. The Incas welcomed him as the reincarnated Viracocha. In some lore, occasionally identified as De Soto Hernando.

Desana

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duca

In the lore of some Brazilian tribes, a large cat-like animal. Sometimes identified as duca.

Dyombi

A deity of the black people of Surinam. Sometimes referred to as Dyombi.

Ekkekko

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El Dorado

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El Gran Moxo

The ruler of the realm of Paititi, in the lore of Guarani people. On occassion, identified as El Gran Moxo, Quecha Musu or Quecha Musu.

El-lal

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Elek

A demon of disease and storms in Argentina. Also called Elek.

Ellal

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Emisiwaddo

A goddess of the Arawak. Wife of Kururumany. Sometimes identified as Emisiwaddo.

Epunamun

A supreme god or war-god of the Araucanian Indians. Also commonly referred to as Epunamun, Guinechen, Guinechen, Guinemapun or Guinemapun.

Eupai

An Inca god of the underworld to whom children were sacrificed. Known as Eupai.

Evaki

A goddess of the night, in the lore of some of the tribes of the Amazon basin. In some accounts, referred to as Evaki.

Father Atoja

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Fempellec

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fiofio

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Firavitoba

A divine king of the Chibcha of Colombia. In some accounts, called Firavitoba.

Five Falcons

The Peruvian hero Paricaca and his 4 brothers. In some references, called Five Falcons.

Fongaside

A servant of Naymlap. In some lore, occasionally known as Fongaside.

Goshye-e

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Grandfather

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Great Ancestor

A vaguely defined supreme spirit of some tribes. Also called Great Ancestor, Powerful One, Powerful One, Powerful One or Powerful One.

Great Canoe

A stockade. The Mandan hero, Lone Man, built this stockade to save his people from the flood. On occassion, identified as Great Canoe, Maninga or Maninga.

Gro Mama

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guaca

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Guallipen

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guara

Spirits in the lore of the Chamacoco people. Occasionally called guara.

Guaracy

Sun-god and creator of animals. Sometimes called Guaracy, Guracy, Guracy, Torushompek or Torushompek.

Guarani

An ancestral hero. He was one of four brothers who survived the flood and became the ancestor of the Guarani tribe. Also identified as Guarani.

Guatavita

In the lore of the Chibcha, a lake. Said to be the home of a snakegod. Also commonly known as Guatavita.

Guayacan

In the lore of the Incas, a lake. It was believed that the sky rested on pillars which rose out of this primordial lake. In some references, referred to as Guayacan.

Guayavacuni

A supreme god in Patagonia. Occasionally referred to as Guayavacuni.

Guecubu

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Guenu-Pillan

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Guinechen

A name of Epunamun as 'master of men'. Sometimes identified as Guinechen, Epunamun, Epunamun or Guinemapun.

Guinemapun

A name of Epunamun as 'master of the land'. Known as Guinemapun, Epunamun, Epunamun or Guinechen.

hapi-nunu

Inca demons: female spirits of the Aymara. Also referred to as hapi-nunu, hapinunu or hapinunu.

Hayhuaypanti

Inca deities acting as messengers for Viracocha. Sometimes identified as Hayhuaypanti.

He People

Ancestral spirits of the Barasana. People. Also referred to as He People.

Heller

A Patagonian creator-god. Son of the sun. Also commonly identified as Heller.

Hermitten

A survivor of the flood. Brother of Coem and Krimen. These three brothers escaped the flood by taking refuge in caves or trees. Occasionally called Hermitten.

Hero Twins, The

The twin brothers Hunapu and Ixbalanque. Occasionally identified as Hero Twins, The.

Hide

A water-monster in Argentinian lore. Occasionally called Hide.

huaca

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huakanki

Love amulets in Bolivia. At times, referred to as huakanki.

Huallallo

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Huamantantac

An Inca spirit controlling the sea-birds which provided the guano to fertilise the maize. Occasionally referred to as Huamantantac.

huaminca

Light rays regarded by the Incas as messengers of Viracocha. Occasionally identified as huaminca.

Huana Cauri

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huanca

A huaca placed near crops to ensure. Adequate rainfall. In some references, identified as huanca, huaca, huaca, brother, huacas, compa, chichic or huillca.

huantaysara

A corn-doll representing Saramama, the Inca spirit controlling the growth of maize. Sometimes identified as huantaysara, Saramama, Saramama, Maize Mother or Sara-mama.

huari

A revered ancestor of an aristocratic. Family. In some references, identified as huari.

Huasa malleu

A Bolivian deity, guardian of the vicuna. He is said to protect the vicuna by rendering them invisible to hunters. In some accounts, referred to as Huasa malleu.

Huathiacuri

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Huayna-Capac

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huecuvu

Malevolent spirits of the Araucanians. In some accounts, identified as huecuvu, trelque huecuvu, trelque huecuvu or Manta.

huillca

A huaca acting as an oracle. In some accounts, identified as huillca, huaca, huaca, brother, huacas, compa, chichic or huanca.

Huillcamayu

A river revered as an oracle. In some references, referred to as Huillcamayu.

hunessai

In the lore of the Witoto, spirits of those who, in life, were associated with plants or fish. In some accounts, referred to as hunessai.

Iae

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Iavure-cunha

A tiny forest-spirit of Brazil. Sometimes referred to as Iavure-cunha.

Iboroquiamio

A deity of Guyana, evil personified. In some lore, occasionally identified as Iboroquiamio.

Igaranha

A Brazilian spirit which can appear in the form of a canoe. Sometimes known as Igaranha.

Iguagué

A lake in Colombia. This is the lake from which, according to the Chibcha, the woman Bachué emerged at creation. On occassion, identified as Iguagué.

Illa

A thunder-god: a name for Viracocha. As 'light'. In some references, called Illa, Illa-Ticci, Illa-Ticci, Illa-Tiki, Illa-Tiki, Kon-Tiki, Illatici, Illatici, Tici, Tici, Ticci, Ticci Viracocha, Viracocha, Ticci (Viracocha) or Ticcu.

Ilyapa

An Inca weather-god and god of thunder. He was replaced by Santiago. In some lore, occasionally called Ilyapa, Apu-illapu, Apu-illapu, Coqi-Ilya, Coqi-Ilya, Ilapa, Ilapa, Illapa, Illapa, Inti-Ilyapa, Inti-Ilyapa, Katoylla, Katoylla, Il(l)apa or Il(l)apa.

Imap

A water-monster. Occasionally known as Imap.

Imaymana Viracocha

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Inkari

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Inti

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Inti raimi

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Iolokiamo

An evil trickster-god in Venezuela, opposed to Cachimana. Also commonly called Iolokiamo.

Ipa Huaca

In some accounts, a female member of the Children of the Sun. Sometimes known as Ipa Huaca.

Iraca

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Irin Mage

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Itha-Arapi

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Itoki

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Izoi-tamoi

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Jacunuam

A celestial fish. The Xingu of Brazil say that this great fish swallows the sun every night and vomits it up each morning. Also referred to as Jacunuam.

Jacy

A Tupi creator-god, the moon. Occasionally identified as Jacy, Toruguenket or Toruguenket.

Jaguar

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Jaguar-man

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Jakui

A Xingu flute-spirit. This spirit is said to live under water and is envisaged as a ceremonial flute. Sometimes called Jakui.

Jakuiaep

A Xingu mask-spirit. Like the related Jakui, this spirit lives under water but is envisaged as a ceremonial mask. In some accounts, called Jakuiaep.

Jetaita

An earth-spirit in Tierra del Fuego. Also commonly known as Jetaita.

Jurupari

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Ka-Ata-Killa

A moon-goddess in Peru. Occasionally referred to as Ka-Ata-Killa.

Kaboi

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Kaikai

A supernatural serpent. The Araucanians say that this huge serpent, and another called Trentren, caused the flood. On occassion, identified as Kaikai.

Kalinago

A man who became a fish-monster. Also known as Kalinago, Atraiomen or Atraiomen.

Kalunga

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Kamaima

In Honduras, a name for various forms of black magic: a practitioner of that art. In some accounts, called Kamaima.

Kame

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Kamu

A culture-hero of the Arawak Indians. Also commonly known as Kamu, Bakairi Kame, Bakairi Kame, Karaya Kaboi, Karaya Kaboi, Kame, Tamu, Zume, Paraguayan Pay Zume, Paraguayan Pay Zume, Kaboi or Kame.

kanaimu

In the Guianas, various forms of black. Magic: avenging spirits who stalk. Their victims and kill them. Sometimes referred to as kanaimu.

Kanal

Twin brother of Kayurukre. In some lore, occasionally called Kanal.

Kanassa

The creator-god of the Kuikuru. He got fire from the sky by capturing a vulture and forcing him to bring down a burning ember. Occasionally known as Kanassa.

Karu

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Kasogonaga

The rain-goddess of the Chaco Indians. She is said to appear as an ant-eater when she visits the earth. In some references, identified as Kasogonaga, Kasogana or Kasogana.

kaspi

The souls of the dead, in the lore of the Ona tribe of Tierra del Fuego. In some references, referred to as kaspi.

Kayurukre

A culture-hero who gave bees to the Caingang tribe. Occasionally referred to as Kayurukre.

kenne

A stone which the Incas said. Formed in the eye of a stag. This stone was used as an antidote to poison. Sometimes referred to as kenne.

Keri

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Keros

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Keyeme

Lord of the animals in the lore of the Taulipang people. He is envisaged as a man who can change into a snake. Identified as Keyeme.

Khuno

A Bolivian god of snow-storms. Sometimes identified as Khuno.

ki-apod

Celestial spirits of the Tupari. People of Brazil. Also known as ki-apod.

ki-apoga-pod

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Kichigonai

A spirit of light, maker of the day, in Guatemala. Occasionally known as Kichigonai.

Kilya

An Inca moon-goddess. At times, called Kilya.

kina

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kinno

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Kloketen

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Komfo

In Surinam, a person possessed. By a spirit. Sometimes identified as Komfo, okpomfo, okpomfo, komfo, okomfo or okomfo.

Kon-Tiki

An early name of Viracocha. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Kon-Tiki, Viracocha, Viracocha, Arunaua, Con Ticci Viracocha, Huiracocha, Tuapaca, Vairacocha, Wiraqocha, Zapala, (Con) Ticci Viracocha, Illa(-Tiki), Tici, Inca Thunupa, Taripaca, Tocay, Illa-Tiki, Illa-Tiki or Illa.

Kononatoo

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Kopilitara

A woman who taught the Chaco the art of pottery. Wife of Kosodot. Sometimes referred to as Kopilitara.

Korobona

Mother of the first Carib, fathered by a demon. In some accounts, known as Korobona.

koshpik

Spirits of the dead, in the lore of the Yaghan of Tierra del Fuego. Sometimes identified as koshpik.

Kosodot

A little man who taught the Chaco to hunt. Husband of Kopilitara. Also identified as Kosodot.

Koupai

Evil spirits in the lore of Peru. Also commonly identified as Koupai.

kra

The soul, in the lore of some black. Tribes of the north. On occassion, referred to as kra, akra, akra or kla.

Krimen

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kromanti

In Surinam, a force said to make warriors. Invulnerable to bullets and swords. Also referred to as kromanti, k'omanti or k'omanti.

Kuat

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Kulimina

The creator of women in the lore of the Arawak Indians. Also known as Kulimina, Kururumany or Kururumany.

kumakanga

A werewolf in Brazil. Also commonly referred to as kumakanga.

Kumaphari

A cannibal god of the Shipaya tribe. Occasionally known as Kumaphari.

kunu

In Surinam, a supernatural force used. By the gods to punish breaches of the social code. Known as kunu.

Kupai

A devil in Peru. Also commonly known as Kupai.

Kururumany

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Kusa Kap

In the lore of Torres Strait, a fabulous bird. It is said that this bird first brought fire to mankind. Also commonly identified as Kusa Kap.

Kwanyip

A culture-hero of the Ona tribe of Tierra del Fuego. He is said to have defeated the evil spirit, Chenuke. In some references, known as Kwanyip.

La Dorada

In Inca lore, a statue of the female. Consort of the king (of) El Dorado. On occassion, identified as La Dorada.

La Llorona

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Laica

A benevolent fairy in Peru. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Laica.

Larilari

An evil spirit of the Andean tribes. Also known as Larilari.

liwa

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Llagoligua

A tree. The tribes of Paraguay say that this tree is used by the dead as a route to heaven. In some accounts, called Llagoligua.

Llampallec

A stone figure in the temple, Chot, later removed by the king, Fempellec. Occasionally identified as Llampallec.

Llapchilulli

A servant of Naymlap. Sometimes identified as Llapchilulli.

Loanga winti

A spirit worshipped by some African. Tribes. In some references, referred to as Loanga winti.

lukumans

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Ma Bumba

A deity of Surinam, based on the Bakongo creator-god Niambi. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Ma Bumba, Bumba, Bumba or Nzambi.

Macaw

Brother of Yurupary. His brother stole fire from the underworld and used it to kill Macaw. Also commonly referred to as Macaw.

machi

Shamans of the Araucanian tribes. On occassion, known as machi, Guarani piai or Guarani piai.

macumba

Magic rituals of some Brazilian tribes. Also commonly referred to as macumba.

mae de santo

A priestess in Brazil. Also called mae de santo, malepai de santo, malepai de santo, Yoruba iyalorisha or Yoruba iyalorisha.

Mair-monan

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Mair-pochy

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Maira-Monan

A creator-god and culture hero of the Tupinambo tribe. In some references, called Maira-Monan.

Maire

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Maiso

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Makanaima

A creator-god in Guyana. One of the Twins. In some references, referred to as Makanaima, Aimon Kondi, Aimon Kondi, Aimoun, Aimun, Aiomoum Kondi, Aim(o)un, Aiomoun Kondi, Mackonaima, Mackonaima, Makunaima or Makunaima.

Makuri

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Malinalli

The twelfth of the 20 days of the Aztec month. Symbolising grass, thorns and the south, the day was ruled by Patécatl. Sometimes identified as Malinalli.

mallcu

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mama

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Mama Allpa

An Inca earth-goddess and goddess of the harvest. She is depicted with many breasts. In some accounts, referred to as Mama Allpa.

Mama Cocha

An Inca sea-goddess and goddess of rain. Wife of Viracocha. At times, known as Mama Cocha, Mama Qoca or Mama Qoca.

Mama Cora

An Inca maize goddess. Daughter of Pirua. Also identified as Mama Cora, Cora, Cora, Core, Mama Cota, Mama Cota, Mother-water or Mama Coro.

Mama Cota

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Mama Coyo

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Mama Huaco

One of the sisters said to be ancestors of the Incas. Sometimes referred to as Mama Huaco, Children of the Sun, Children of the Sun, Ayar Ayca, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Manco, Ayar Oco, Cusco Huanca, Inti, Mama Coyo, Mama Ipa Qora, Mama Ocllo, Mama Rahua, Pacari, Tahuantin-Suyu-Kapac or Topa Huaco.

Mama Ipa Qora

One of the sisters said to be ancestors of the Incas. Also identified as Mama Ipa Qora, Children of the Sun, Children of the Sun, Ayar Ayca, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Manco, Ayar Oco, Cusco Huanca, Inti, Mama Coyo, Mama Huaco, Mama Ocllo, Mama Rahua, Pacari, Tahuantin-Suyu-Kapac or Topa Huaco.

Mama Kilya

An Inca moon-goddess. Sister and consort of Inti. In some lore, occasionally known as Mama Kilya, Mama Quilla, Mama Quilla, Mama Quillo, Mama Quillo, Quilla, Quilla, (Mama) Quilla or (Mama) Quilla.

Mama Ocllo

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Mama Rahua

One of the sisters said to be ancestors of the Incas. On occassion, identified as Mama Rahua, Mama Rawa, Mama Rawa, Children of the Sun, Children of the Sun, Ayar Ayca, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Manco, Ayar Oco, Cusco Huanca, Inti, Mama Coyo, Mama Huaco, Mama Ipa Qora, Mama Ocllo, Pacari, Tahuantin-Suyu-Kapac or Topa Huaco.

Mamacuna

An Inca woman in charge of the Acllacuna. At times, known as Mamacuna.

mamaé

The Xingu spirits of the dead. Identified as mamaé.

Manco Capac

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Mani

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Mani-Mani

In the lore of the Tupari of Brazil, the river bounding the underworld. On occassion, known as Mani-Mani, Greek Styx, Greek Styx, Hubur, Khubur, Leipter or River of Three Roads.

Manoa

The capital city of the mythical. Country, El Dorado. Occasionally referred to as Manoa, Omoa or Omoa.

Manta

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Marerewana

The survivor of the fire and the flood. Sent by Aimon Kondi. In some lore, occasionally known as Marerewana.

maret

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Maria

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Matvutsini

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Mavutsinim

Supreme god of the Kamaiura Indians. He made a woman from a shell. She produced a son and then returned to her former state. Sometimes identified as Mavutsinim.

Mbir

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Mearatsim

A spirit of the Xingu. Also called Mearatsim.

Mekala

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Menechen

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Meulen

An Araucanian whirlwind-deity. This being is said to eat children. In some references, called Meulen.

Minata-karaia

A supposed race in Brazil. These people were said to have had a hole in the head which emitted whistling sounds. Known as Minata-karaia.

mohane

An Inca sorcerer. These people act as oracles and also claim to cure the sick. Occasionally known as mohane, agorero or agorero.

Molina, Christoval de

A 16th C. Priest of Cuzco. He recorded many Inca ceremonies and myths. Sometimes known as Molina, Christoval de.

Moma

A creator-god and moon-god of the Uitoto Indians. Having created mankind he was killed and became god of the underworld. Sometimes identified as Moma.

Monan

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Mororoma

A Bolivian thunder-god. On occassion, known as Mororoma.

Mount Churuquilla

A sacred mountain in Bolivia. This mountain was said to embody a male spirit to complement the female spirit of Mount Sicasica. On occassion, known as Mount Churuquilla.

Mount Condorcoto

The site where 5 men were born from eggs after the flood subsided. Also called Mount Condorcoto, Condorcoto or Condorcoto.

Mount Huanacauri

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Mount Ilanyau

A sacred mountain in Bolivia. Occasionally identified as Mount Ilanyau.

Mount Illampu

A sacred mountain in Bolivia. Also known as Mount Illampu.

Mount Illimani

A sacred mountain in Bolivia. In some references, identified as Mount Illimani.

Mount Lamallaka

A mountain in Peru, sacred to the Quecha tribe. Sometimes called Mount Lamallaka, Lamallaka or Lamallaka.

Mount Mururata

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Mount Parichata

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Mount Sajama

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Mount Sicasica

A sacred mountain in Bolivia. This mountain was said to embody the female spirit to complement the male spirit in Mount Churuquilla. In some references, called Mount Sicasica.

Mount Tati-Turqui

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Mpokalero

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Muiname

Spirits of ancestors, in the lore of the Witoto. Also called Muiname.

Musu

Ruler of a fabulous land of wealth in Quecha stories. Brother of Sand Altar Woman. Also referred to as Musu, Paraguay El Gran Moxo or Paraguay El Gran Moxo.

Nainuema

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Nakali

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Nanan

An earth-goddess. A version of Nana imported into Brazil with the slaves from Africa. Occasionally referred to as Nanan, Nana or Nana.

Nancomala

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Naymlap

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Nedamik

A culture-hero of the Chaco tribes in the form of a water-bird. At times, known as Nedamik.

Neepec

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Nemquetcha

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Ngurvilu

A Chilean water-god. This deity was envisaged as a wild cat with a claw on the end of its tail. At times, referred to as Ngurvilu.

Ni

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Ninacolla

A servant of Naymlap acting. As throne-bearer. Also referred to as Ninacolla.

Ningentue

A servant of Naymlap who acted. As his cup-bearer. In some references, known as Ningentue.

nisca

In Inca lore, the word of god which he used to create all things. In some references, known as nisca.

Nompane

A legendary king of the Chibcha. He is said to have been taught the arts of agriculture, etc. and religious rites by the god Bochica. Also commonly known as Nompane.

Nosjthej

Father of El-Lal. Sometimes called Nosjthej.

Nyami Abe

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Ochocalo

A servant of Naymlap acting. As his cook. Identified as Ochocalo.

Oi

A mythical race of tall people in Brazil. Sometimes referred to as Oi.

Oka

A jaguar-spirit of the Bakairi Indians. Father of Kame and Keri. Occasionally referred to as Oka.

Okonorote

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okuli

A shaman in Nicaragua. Identified as okuli, Panamanian neles, Panamanian neles or sukya.

Ollanta

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Omam

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ono pacakoti

The flood sent by Viracocha to destroy. The first race of beings. At times, identified as ono pacakoti.

pa'yak

Black beetles: supernatural spirits of the Toba Indians. Also known as pa'yak.

pabid

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Pacari

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pacarina

In Inca lore, dead ancestors. It was believed that these beings could intercede with the gods on behalf of their descendants. Also called pacarina.

Pachacamac

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Pachaccan

A name for Thunupa as 'servant'. In some lore, occasionally known as Pachaccan, Thunupa, Thunupa, Conapa, Taapac, Tapac, Thonapa, Thunapa, Thunupu, Tonapa, (Con Ticci) Viracocha, Ta(a)pac, Tarapaca, T(h)onapa or Vicchaycamaya.

Pachamama

An Inca earth-goddess. Also commonly known as Pachamama, Mama Pacha, Mama Pacha, Paca-Mama, Paca-Mama, Pachacamama, Pachacamama, Mother Earth, Mother Earth, Demeter, Earth Mother, Nerthus or Earth Mother.

Pacharurac

A name for Pachacamac as 'maker of all things'. Also identified as Pacharurac, Pachacamac, Pachacamac, Earth-maker, Earth-maker or Pachayachachic.

Pachayachachic

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pagab

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Page Abe

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pai de santo

A priest of the African immigrants in Brazil. In some accounts, called pai de santo, femalemae de santo, femalemae de santo, Yoruba babalorisha or Yoruba babalorisha.

Paititi

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pajé

A Xingu shaman. Known as pajé, piai, piai, ippayeq, piaiman, piay, pagé, piaiaman, Araucanian machi or lukuman.

pako

A magician of the tribes of Bolivia. Identified as pako.

Pamuri-mahse

A demi-god of the Tukano Indians. He helped Page Abe to create the earth and its animals. Sometimes called Pamuri-mahse, 'divine helper' or 'divine helper'.

paqok

Demons of the Maya. Occasionally identified as paqok.

Paraparawa

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Pariacaca

An Inca thunder-god. In some accounts, he is the same as Paricaca. In some accounts, known as Pariacaca, Churoquella, Churoquella, Con or Con.

Paricaca

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Parina

A lake said to exist in the mythical. Land of Manoa. On occassion, referred to as Parina.

Parioca

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Patobkia

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Pay Zume

A Paraguayan sun-god. He taught his people the arts of agriculture and the chase. On occassion, called Pay Zume, West Indies Zume or West Indies Zume.

Payetome

A culture-hero or god of ague in Brazil. Sometimes identified as Payetome.

peai

A witch-doctor in Guiana. Also referred to as peai, peai-man, peai-man, piache or piache.

Pepezu

A god of the Yuracari tribe. At times, called Pepezu.

Periboriwa

A moon-spirit of the Yanomani. The tribe is said to have sprung from drops of Periboriwa's blood. In some accounts, identified as Periboriwa.

Peritalnak

A culture-hero of the Chaco tribe. On occassion, known as Peritalnak.

Peruda

A creator-god of the Tupi Indians. Occasionally identified as Peruda.

piai

A sorcerer of the Carib and Guarani peoples. Sometimes known as piai, ippayeq, ippayeq, piaiman, piaiman, piay, piay, pajé, pajé, pagé, pagé, piaiaman, piaiaman, Araucanian machi, Araucanian machi, lukuman, lukuman, kartaman, obi-man, wintiman or wisiman.

Piguerao

A sacred hero of the Incas. Son of Guamansuri. Twin brother of Apocatequil. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Piguerao.

pillan

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Pinahua

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Pinon

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Piqui-Chaqui

A servant of Ollanta. Also referred to as Piqui-Chaqui, Flea-footed, Flea-footed or Piqu-Chaqui.

Pirua

The celestial form of Manco Capac. In some references, referred to as Pirua, Manco Capac, Manco Capac or Ayar Manco.

Pitazofi

A servant of Naymlap who acted as his. Master's trumpeter. In some references, called Pitazofi.

Pitu Salla

Guardian of Yma Sumac. Occasionally called Pitu Salla.

Place of Seven Caves

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Poopo

A sacred lake in Bolivia. Called Poopo.

Pore

A creator-god of the Indians of Guyana. In some lore, occasionally identified as Pore, Pura or Pura.

Powerful One

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pura moja

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Purrunaminari

A creator-god in Guyana. Consort of Taparimarru. Father of Sisiri. Sometimes known as Purrunaminari.

qentilis

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Qubauil

A sky-deity in Guatemala. In some accounts, Qubauil and Gucumatz created the first man, Hurakan. Also identified as Qubauil.

Quecholli

A festival in honour of Mixcoatl, held on the 280th day of the year. Sometimes called Quecholli.

Queevet

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Quinoa-Mama

A goddess of agriculture in Peru. She is responsible for the crops of the quinoa plant. In some accounts, referred to as Quinoa-Mama, Quinuamama or Quinuamama.

Raimonidi

An ancient Peruvian deity. At times, known as Raimonidi.

Rainbow

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Raini

A Tupi creator-god. He created the world when he placed a flat stone on the head of another deity. In some references, called Raini, Rairu or Rairu.

Rairu

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Ramiquiri

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Raymi

A harvest festival held at the summer. Solstice. Sometimes called Raymi, Hatun Raymi or Hatun Raymi.

rigai

In the lore of the Witoto, spirits of the air, birds or insects. Sometimes known as rigai.

Roal

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Romi Kumu

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Ruma-naui

A general leading the army of the Inca. Pachacutic. Called Ruma-naui.

Rutbe

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saci

The 'little people', forest spirits of Brazil. In some references, referred to as saci, sacy-perere, sacy-perere, Cacy taperere, Dahomey azizan, Dahomey azizan, mmoatia, Nigerian ijimere, Nigerian ijimere, azizan, Surinam apuku, Surinam apuku, ijimere, saay-perere or saay-perere.

sacy-perere

In Brazil, cheerful spirits of the forest. Sometimes identified as sacy-perere, saci, saci, Dahomey azizan, Nigerian ijimere, Surinam apuku, saay-perere, Cacy taperere, Cacy taperere, Sacy-perere or Sasy-perere.

Saguaa

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Sakaldakama

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Samiri

The sacred origins (caves, hills or lakes) of the Aymara. This also refers to the stone fetishes (huaca) used to guard herds and villages. Sometimes referred to as Samiri.

Santiago

A later version of Ilyapa derived from the Spanish St James. Also identified as Santiago.

Sapa Inca

Son of the sun-god Inti. At times, referred to as Sapa Inca.

Saracura

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Saramama

An Inca spirit controlling the growth of maize. Known as Saramama, Maize Mother, Maize Mother, Sara-mama, Sara-mama, huantaysara or huantaysara.

Sarigoys

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Settaboth

A Patagonian deity. In some lore, occasionally called Settaboth, Setebos or Setebos.

Si

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Sigu

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sikla bird

In the lore of the Indians of Honduras and Nicaragua, the bird which tends the boiling pot, Sakaldakama, in the underworld. Also commonly referred to as sikla bird.

Sinaa

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Sinchi Roca

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Sisiri

Son of Purrunaminari. Also commonly known as Sisiri.

Situa

An Inca festival held in September. This festival involved offerings to the gods to avert sickness and disaster. Sometimes referred to as Situa.

spirit trap

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Star Creator

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Star Woman

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Stone Giant

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Su

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Sua

A sun-god and culture-hero of the Muyscaya Indians. Consort of Cuchaviva. In some accounts he is equated with Bochica. In some accounts, identified as Sua, Bochica, Bochica, Chimizapagua, Sugunsua, Xu(h)e, Zuhé or Nemquetcha.

sukya

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Sumé

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Tacuaree

A Guarani maiden. Daughter of Saguaa. At times, known as Tacuaree.

Tae

A goddess of the Tukuna tribe. Sometimes identified as Tae.

Tahuantin-Suyu-Kapac

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Tamacaui

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Tamendonar

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Tamosi

A supreme god in Guyana. Also known as Tamosi, Tamosikabotano or Tamosikabotano.

Tamtanamka

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Tamu

A Carib culture-hero. At times, referred to as Tamu, Kaboi, Kaboi, Arawak Kamu, Carib Kame, Paraguayan Pay Zume, Tume, Tume, Zume, Karaya Kaboi, Karaya Kaboi, Kame or Kamu.

Tamulu

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Tamusi

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Tancanaymo

A Peruvian giant. Known as Tancanaymo.

Tanga Tanga

In Peru, a three-headed god of birth, life and death. Sometimes called Tanga Tanga.

Taparimarru

Consort of Purrunaminari. Mother of Sisiri. Sometimes known as Taparimarru.

Taripaca

An aspect of Viracocha as 'judge'. At times, called Taripaca, Viracocha, Viracocha, Arunaua, Con Ticci Viracocha, Huiracocha, Tuapaca, Vairacocha, Wiraqocha, Zapala, (Con) Ticci Viracocha, Illa(-Tiki), Kon-Tiki, Tici, Inca Thunupa or Tocay.

Tarpuntatita-cuma

Incas who performed human. Sacrifice. Occasionally called Tarpuntatita-cuma.

Tatu-Karaia

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Tatzitzete

A supreme god of the Chaco tribe of Colombia. Father of Carabagi. Occasionally known as Tatzitzete.

Tawenduare

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Telque-huecuve

A cuttlefish in the lore of the Araucanians. This fearsome beast has a hoof on the end of each tentacle. In some references, known as Telque-huecuve, Manta, Manta, Hueca, Huecu or trelque huecuvu.

Temaukel

The supreme god of the Ona Indians of Tierra del Fuego. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Temaukel.

Temioua

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Tempulcagne

The Araucanian angel of death. Occasionally referred to as Tempulcagne.

Tenten

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Teyu-Yagua

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Thunderbird

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Thunupa

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Tiahuanaco

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Tici

A name of Viracocha as 'beginning'. In some references, identified as Tici, Ticci, Ticci, Ticci Viracocha, Ticci Viracocha, Pachayachachic, Viracocha, Viracocha, Arunaua, Con Ticci Viracocha, Huiracocha, Tuapaca, Vairacocha, Wiraqocha, Zapala, (Con) Ticci Viracocha, Illa(-Tiki), Kon-Tiki, Inca Thunupa, Taripaca, Tocay, Ticci (Viracocha), Ticci (Viracocha), Ticcu, Ticcu, Illa, Illa, Illa-Ticci, Illa-Tiki or Illatici.

Tiri

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Titi

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Titicaca

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Tiwanaku

The home of Viracocha. Also commonly known as Tiwanaku.

Tocapo Viracocha

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Tocay

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Topa Huaco

One of 4 sisters, ancestresses of the Incas. In some accounts, identified as Topa Huaco, Children of the Sun, Children of the Sun, Ayar Ayca, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Manco, Ayar Oco, Cusco Huanca, Inti, Mama Coyo, Mama Huaco, Mama Ipa Qora, Mama Ocllo, Mama Rahua, Pacari or Tahuantin-Suyu-Kapac.

Torito

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Toruguenket

The moon, Jacy, in its evil aspect. The Tupi say that the moon falls and destroys the earth at the end of each age. Sometimes referred to as Toruguenket, Jacy or Jacy.

Torushompek

In the lore of the Tupi, the sun, Guaracy: the good principle. In some references, known as Torushompek, Guaracy, Guaracy or Guracy.

Touppart

A supreme deity of the Cariri. People of Brazil. In some references, known as Touppart.

Tovapod

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Traditions of Huarochiri

A book of Inca ritual and mythology. Written in Quecha. At times, identified as Traditions of Huarochiri.

Trentren

A supernatural serpent. The Araucanians say that this huge serpent, and another called Kaikai, caused the flood. Also referred to as Trentren.

Tupan

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Tupimare

The hill where the ancestors of the Karaya Indians took refuge. From the Flood. Sometimes known as Tupimare.

turkey

A bird sacred to the Aztecs, Maya and Toltecs. On occassion, referred to as turkey, Great Xolotl, Great Xolotl, Jewelled Fowl or Jewelled Fowl.

Tutruica

In the lore of the Chaco people of Colombia, a destructive spirit. Opposed to Caragabi. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Tutruica.

Uaica

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Uarahiulu

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Uatlan

A virgin mother-goddess of the Quiche Indians. Mother of Xbalanque. Sometimes known as Uatlan.

Uazale

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Ule

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Urpi-huachac

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Urubutsin

King of the vultures. He was captured by Kuat and Iae who released him only after he had handed over the gift of light. On occassion, referred to as Urubutsin.

urus

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Vab

A magician in the lore of the Tupari. Brother of Valedjad. Vab and his brother were born when a large black stone split open. Also known as Vab.

Vai-mahse

A red dwarf-god of the Tukano. Indians, controller of animals. Sometimes known as Vai-mahse.

Vaimatse

A fertility-god of the Turkano tribe. In some references, referred to as Vaimatse.

Valedjad

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Vamoa-pod

A primordial being, in the lore of the Tupari of Brazil. Occasionally referred to as Vamoa-pod, Aroteh, Aroteh, Tovapod or Tovapod.

Vamoa-toga-toga

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Vaugh'eh

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Vicchaycamaya

A name for Thunupa as preacher. In some references, called Vicchaycamaya, Thunupa, Thunupa, Conapa, Taapac, Tapac, Thonapa, Thunapa, Thunupu, Tonapa, (Con Ticci) Viracocha, Pachaccan, Ta(a)pac, Tarapaca or T(h)onapa.

Vichama

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Viracocha

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Virgins of the Sun

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Vis

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vodunsi

A worshipper of the voodoo gods. Derived from African deities. Also called vodunsi, yawo or yawo.

Wahari

Brother of Bucka. When Wahari found that his brother had seduced all the women in the tribe, he cut off his over-long penis. Occasionally referred to as Wahari.

walichu

Evil spirits of the Araucanian people. On occassion, called walichu.

Wanka

An Inca guardian deity, the personification of the huaca. Monumental stones. At times, called Wanka.

Ware

A shaman. He killed many of the anchunga by setting fire to their long hair. Sometimes identified as Ware.

Watauineiwa

A supreme god of the Yahgan Indians of Tierra del Fuego. Occasionally identified as Watauineiwa, Most Ancient One or Most Ancient One.

Water Door

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Wawki

An Inca guardian-deity, the personification of the emperor's huaca. Sometimes referred to as Wawki.

Winti

A wind-spirit in the Guianas: a priest. Practising magic. In some references, called Winti, Wintima, Wintima or winti.

wishinu

A shaman in Ecuador. Sometimes referred to as wishinu.

Wurekaddo

An Arawak goddess. Wife of Kururumany. In some references, referred to as Wurekaddo.

Xam

A servant of Naymlap, acting as a sort of make-up artist. Sometimes identified as Xam, Xan or Xan.

Xolas

A supreme deity in parts of Tierra. Del Fuego. On occassion, identified as Xolas.

Yacu-mama

A monster in the form of a sea-snake. At times, known as Yacu-mama.

yaga

A plant which produces a powerful. Hallucinatory drug used in divination. In some lore, occasionally referred to as yaga.

Yaguarogin

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Yananamca Intanamca

A huaca in the form of a man. He was in conflict with Huallallo and was defeated. In some accounts, identified as Yananamca Intanamca.

Yanauluha

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Yara

A siren in Brazilian lore. Occasionally identified as Yara.

Yatin

The Aymara name for Pachayachachic. Also identified as Yatin, Ruler, The, Ruler, The, The Ruler or The Ruler.

yatiri

A priest or diviner of the Aymara. People of Bolivia. In some lore, occasionally identified as yatiri.

yawo

An initiate in the worship of the voodoo gods. Sometimes known as yawo, vodunsi or vodunsi.

Yma Sumac

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Yoalax

A culture-hero of the tribes of Tierra. Del Fuego. Also commonly identified as Yoalax.

Yorka

The malevolent ghost of an ancestor in Guiana (Surinam). Sometimes identified as Yorka, Yoroka or Yoroka.

Yurupari

A bush-demon of the Tupi of Brazil. On occassion, known as Yurupari.

Yurupary

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Zaguaguaya

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Zara-Mama

A maize-goddess in Peru. In some lore, occasionally known as Zara-Mama.
South American Mythology