Persian Lore, Gods, Demigods, Heroes, Symbols, and Other Famous Mythological Characters

Abans

A spirit that inhabits iron ore mines. In some lore, occasionally known as Abans.

Abdallah the Fisherman

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Abou Hassan

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Adversary, The

A name for Ahriman. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Adversary, The.

Aeshma

A demon of violence opposing Sraosha or Vohu Manah. In some lore, occasionally called Aeshma, Aesma, Aesma, Aeshma Daeva, Aeshma Daeva, Khasm, Khasm, Khism, Hebrew Asmodeus or Hebrew Asmodeus.

Afrasiyab

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Aftab

A sun deity. Sometimes referred to as Aftab, Babylonian Samas, Babylonian Samas, Aliha, Chemosh, Samos, Sams, Sapas, Shullat or Utu.

Agas

A demon causing illness. Sometimes known as Agas.

Ahaharnaz

One of the wives of Azhi Dahak. Thraetona fathered three sons, Eraj, Salm and Tur, on Aranvaz and Ahaharnaz. Sometimes known as Ahaharnaz.

Ahriman

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Ahurani

A Zoroastrian water-goddess, goddess of fertility, health and prosperity. Occasionally known as Ahurani.

Airyaman

A god of friendship and healing. In some lore, occasionally called Airyaman, Irman, Irman or Aryamon.

Airyano Vaejo

A happy land; a paradise or Eden. Sometimes called Airyano Vaejo.

Aja'ib al-Makhluqat

The story of the various wonders of the world then existing. Also commonly called Aja'ib al-Makhluqat, Wonders of Creation or Wonders of Creation.

Akah Manah

A demon of evil thought opposing. Vohu Manah. Also referred to as Akah Manah, Aka Manah or Aka Manah.

Akhtar

The 12 constellations of the Zodiac. These are envisaged as the leaders of Ahura Mazda's army. Occasionally referred to as Akhtar.

Akhtya

The chief of the Yatis, the Zoroastrian. Sorcerers. In some accounts a demon who was killed when he failed to answer three riddles posed by Yoishta. On occassion, known as Akhtya.

Akoman

An evil spirit that takes possession of liars. In some accounts, called Akoman, Ako Mana or Ako Mana.

Akwan

An evil demon. He once found Rustem asleep and threw him into the sea. At times, identified as Akwan.

Al

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Alnaschar

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Ameretat

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Amesha Spentas

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Anahita

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Anaitis

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Angra Mainya

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Aniran

A sky-god assisting Kshathra Varya. Sometimes known as Aniran.

Anwar-u-Suhali

The modern Persian version of the Panchantantra. Also commonly called Anwar-u-Suhali.

Aosnara

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Apam Napat

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Apaosha

A demon of drought. In the form of a black stallion, he fought the rain god Tistrya, who took the form of a white stallion. In some accounts, called Apaosha.

Apo

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Aranvaz

One of the wives of Azhi Dahak. Thraetona fathered three sons, Eraj, Salm and Tur, with Aranvaz and Ahaharnaz. At times, referred to as Aranvaz.

Aranzakh

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Arda Viraz

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Ardad

A demon who misdirects travellers. Occasionally referred to as Ardad.

Ardashir

A hero. Son of Babak. On occassion, identified as Ardashir.

Ardokhsha

A goddess of good fortune. In some accounts, referred to as Ardokhsha, Greek Tyche, Greek Tyche, Fors, Fortuna or Nortia.

Aredvi

A mythical river, one of the 4 flowing from the lake on the holy mountain, Mount Alburz. Occasionally known as Aredvi.

Aredvi Sura Anahita

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Arejataspa

An opponent of Zoroaster. King Vishtaspa, who was converted by Zoroaster, fought several battles with Arejataspa and finally defeated him. At times, identified as Arejataspa.

Arezoshamana

A demon killed by Keresaspa. Identified as Arezoshamana.

Arishtat

A goddess of truth and honesty. Referred to as Arishtat.

Armageddon

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Armaiti

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Arsaces

A divine ancestor of the Persians. Also known as Arsaces.

Arsacids

A dynasty said to be descended from Arsaces. Sometimes identified as Arsacids.

Arta Viraf

A sage who visited the Otherworld and returned safely. Also referred to as Arta Viraf.

Arzang

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Asaph

A mythical keeper of the forests. Also identified as Asaph.

Asdeev

A white dragon defeated by Rustem. Called Asdeev.

Asha Vahishta

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Ashi

A beneficent deity. Daughter of Amaitis. Sometimes called Ashi.

Asho-Zushta

The owl. This bird is said to drive away demons by reciting from the Avesta. In some accounts, referred to as Asho-Zushta.

Asman

A sky-god assisting Kshathra Varya. Occasionally called Asman.

Asto-vidhotu

A plague demon. He was later elevated to the role of god of death. Also commonly referred to as Asto-vidhotu, Asto-vidatu or Asto-vidatu.

Astyages

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Atar

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Atash Bahram

A fire temple. This, the seventh creation of Ahura Mazda, is regarded as representing cosmic fire. Occasionally referred to as Atash Bahram.

Atesha-ga

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Atharvan

A fire priest. In some accounts, called Atharvan.

Athwya

A primaeval hero. He is said to be the second man to make haoma. Also called Athwya.

Augne-Baugauven

A god of fire. Identified as Augne-Baugauven.

Aurvataspos

The man to whom Kay Khusraw handed his throne when he disappeared into the mountains. Also referred to as Aurvataspos.

Austatikco-Pauligaur

A group of 8 demons guarding. The world. On occassion, referred to as Austatikco-Pauligaur.

Autak

A half-human demon. Mother of Azhi Dahak. Sometimes identified as Autak, Udai, Udai, Vatak, Vatak, Udai-Vatak or Udai-Vatak.

Avesta

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Az

The female principle of greed. At the final battle, this demon will be defeated and confined eternally to hell. In some accounts, identified as Az.

Azadeh

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Azhi Dahak

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Azi

A demon preying on beautiful women. On occassion, identified as Azi.

Bab-ed-Din

The Gate of Righteousness', a name of Mirza Ali Mohammed. Identified as Bab-ed-Din.

Babak

Father of Ardashir. In some accounts, referred to as Babak.

Bad

A storm jinnee. Sometimes referred to as Bad.

Bag-Mashtu

A sky-god, predecessor of Ahura Mazda. Sometimes referred to as Bag-Mashtu, Bag-Mazda, Bag-Mazda, Urartian Khaldu or Urartian Khaldu.

Baga

A name for god. Sometimes identified as Baga.

Bagistane

A sacred rock peak. At times, known as Bagistane, Behistoon or Behistoon.

Bahman

Son of Isfandiyar. He killed the hero Rustem who had earlier killed Bahman's father. In some references, referred to as Bahman, Vohu Manah, Vohu Manah, Ahura Mazda, Bahman, Vahman or 'good thought'.

Bahram

A god of victory, god of Mars and god of travellers. At times, known as Bahram, Vahagn, Vahagn, Vasapaklal, Greek Heracles, Hindu Vritrahan, Persian Verethragna, Verethragna, Verethragna, Atar, Varhagn, Verethraghna, Vrthragna, Vrtragna, Vrt(h)ragna, Armenian Vahagn, Hindu Indra, Vritrahan, Thraetona, Vareghna, Pahlavi Vahram or Pahlavi Vahram.

Bahram fire

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Bahram Gur

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Bahram Yasht

A fabulous bird of fire. This bird's feathers were used to repel demons. Zoroaster brushed his body with them to make himself invulnerable. Occasionally identified as Bahram Yasht.

Barashnum

A ceremony to expel demons that lasts for 9 days. Known as Barashnum.

barsom

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Bedreddin Hassan

A prince. In The Arabian Nights, he was captured and became a cook. On occassion, referred to as Bedreddin Hassan.

Berejya

A guardian spirit. He sends the bird Camrosh to help Iranians attacked by outsiders. At times, called Berejya.

Biducht

A love-goddess. Also commonly referred to as Biducht, Greek Aphrodite, Greek Aphrodite, Alilat, Anahit, Anahita, Anaitis, Aphrodisias, Aprodita, Argimpasa, Astarte, Caelestis, Concordia, Hathor, Ishtar, Mylitta, Rati, Syrian Goddess or Turan.

Bundahishn

Writings about the creation and its purpose. These myths were said to have been revealed by Ahura Mazda directly to Zoroaster. Sometimes referred to as Bundahishn.

Buriash

A storm-god or war-god of the Kassites. In some accounts, referred to as Buriash, Burijash, Burijash, Buriyas, Buriyas, Lord of Lands or Lord of Lands.

Burzhin

Genii, members of the yazata. Identified as Burzhin.

Bushyanasta

A demon of lethargy: a druj. In some lore, occasionally identified as Bushyanasta, Bushyasta, Bushyasta, Bushynasta, Bushynasta, Bushy(n)asta or Bushy(n)asta.

Caena-maergha

A monstrous evil bird. In some accounts, called Caena-maergha, Hebrew Ziz or Hebrew Ziz.

Camaralzaman

A prince in the Arabian Nights story of The Adventures of Prince Camaralzaman and Badoura. Referred to as Camaralzaman.

Camrosh

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Castle of Light

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Caut

A torch bearer. He and Cautopat represent the rising and setting sun. Occasionally called Caut, Cautes or Cautes.

Cautopat

He and Caut represent the rising and setting sun. Referred to as Cautopat, Cautopathes or Cautopathes.

Chinvat Bridge

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Chinvat Puhl

The Pahlavi name for the Chinvat Bridge. Identified as Chinvat Puhl, Chinvat Bridge, Chinvat Bridge, Bridge of the Decider, Chinvat Peretu, Cinvat, Cinvato Peretu, Pul Cinavad, Pul Chinvar, Cinvato PeretuPul Chinavad or Pul Chinavar.

Chur

An archangel. A quadrant of the sun's disc. Sometimes known as Chur, Rod, Rod, Chur, Rodu, Svantevit or Latvian Svantevit.

City of Brass

A city said to have been built by Alexander the Great. At times, identified as City of Brass.

Cyrus

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Dadophori

In Mithraism, the twins life and death. These divinities are depicted as a bull and a scorpion. At times, known as Dadophori.

Dal

A hero who fell in love with a girl he. Had never seen. Occasionally called Dal.

Dalhan

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Damrukh Nara

A demon. On occassion, referred to as Damrukh Nara.

datik

Part of the Avesta. This part of the Avesta dealt with the laws. The other two parts were the gatha and the hatak-mansarif. In some accounts, referred to as datik.

Dena

A goddess, religion personified. Daughter of Ahura Mazda. Also commonly referred to as Dena, Daena or Daena.

dendan

A sea monster in The Arabian Nights. It was said that if this monster touched human flesh or even heard a human voice, it died. Also referred to as dendan.

Dervaspa

A guardian deity of cattle. Also commonly referred to as Dervaspa, Gosh or Gosh.

Desert of Demons

A part of the realm of Jinnestan. In some references, called Desert of Demons, Badiatealgim or Badiatealgim.

Desert of Monsters

Part of the realm of Jinnestan. In some lore, occasionally known as Desert of Monsters, Badiat-Coldare or Badiat-Coldare.

Dew-i-safid

In some accounts, the demon who captured and blinded Kay Kaus. At times, identified as Dew-i-safid, White Demon, The, White Demon, The, Dew-i-Safid, The White Demon, The White Demon, Arzang, Arzang, Arzend or Diw-a-Safid.

Dinkard

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Dir

A demon. In some references, referred to as Dir.

div

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Drugh

The force of disorder. Sometimes identified as Drugh, Druj, Druj, Angra Mainya, Drauga, Drug, Durugh, 'deceit', Drug, 'lie' or 'lie'.

Druj

The place of torment: a name for Angra Mainya: a female demon of falsehood. Sometimes called Druj, Angra Mainya, Angra Mainya, Ahriman, Angra Mainyu, Angru Mainyu, Anra Mainyu, Angra Main(y)u, Angro Mainyus, Drauga, Drug, Drug, Drugh, Drugh, Durugh, 'lie', 'deceit' or 'deceit'.

Druj Nasu

A corpse demon that takes possession of the dead in the form of a fly. In some references, identified as Druj Nasu.

Drvaspa

One of the Yazatas. Also known as Drvaspa.

Dur

A Kassite god of the underworld. In some references, identified as Dur.

Duzzakh

Purgatory. Here the soul could be plunged into flames to purge it of evil. Also called Duzzakh.

Eemen

A demon, one of the 8 Austatikco-Pauligaur. Also identified as Eemen.

Eraj

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Eredatfedhri

The personification of virginity. She is in perpetual conflict with the harlot-demon, Jeh. At times, identified as Eredatfedhri.

Essaunien

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. In some lore, occasionally identified as Essaunien, Shivven or Shivven.

Ezhdeha

A demon, a form of Azhi Dahak. Also referred to as Ezhdeha, Azhi Dahak, Azhi Dahak, Azhdak, Azhi Dahaka, Azidahaka, Bevarash, Dahak, Dahaki, Dahhak, Dhaki, Vishap, Vishapa, Zahhak, Dahak(i), Vishap(a), Zah(h)ak, Zuhak or Zahak.

Fatima

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Firdausi

The 10th C. Author of Shah Name. Called Firdausi, Firdawsi or Firdawsi.

Frashkart

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fravashi

A guardian spirit: an ancestral spirit. These beings are infinite in number and rank below the izedi. Also identified as fravashi, feroher, feroher, ferouer, ferouer, fravahar, fravahar, frav(ah)ar or frav(ah)ar.

Frobach

A sacred fire. One of the yazatas, fire personified. This fire, together with Burzhin Mitro and Gushasp, protected the country. On occassion, referred to as Frobach, Frobagh, Frobagh, Frobak or Frobak.

Gandarewa

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Gaokerena

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Garo Nmana

A paradise, home of the faithful dead. At times, called Garo Nmana, Garotman or Garotman.

gatha

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Gayomart

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Geush Tasan

A cattle-god. Also known as Geush Tasan, Geus Tasan or Geus Tasan.

Geush Urvan

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Gew

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ghol

A ghoul. Occasionally called ghol, Arab ghul, Arab ghul or ghoul.

Gooberen

A demon, one of the Aristatikco-Pauligaur. Sometimes referred to as Gooberen.

Gosurvan

An angel. In some accounts, Gosurvan is one of the Amesha Spentas. In some references, called Gosurvan, Geush Urvan, Geush Urvan, Geus Urvan, Goshurun, Goshurvan or Gesurvan.

Gudarz

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Gushasp

A sacred fire. This fire, together with Burzhin, Mitro and Frobach, protected the country. In some references, referred to as Gushasp.

Hadhayosh

A primaeval ox. The beast carried people across the primordial waters that were known as Vourukasha. In some accounts, identified as Hadhayosh, Hadhayaosh, Hadhayaosh, Sarsaok, Sarsaok, Hebrew Behemoth or Hebrew Behemoth.

Hamestagen

Purgatory. In some accounts, identified as Hamestagen, Hamistakan or Hamistakan.

Hamus

A ruler of the jinn. Also identified as Hamus.

Haoma

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Hapto-iringa

The constellation the Great Bear; Leader of the northern quarter. In some references, identified as Hapto-iringa, Haptok-ring or Haptok-ring.

Haravaiti

A river-goddess. In some lore, occasionally identified as Haravaiti, Afghan Helmund or Afghan Helmund.

Harvatat

An aspect of Ahura Mazda as 'integrity'. In some references, referred to as Harvatat, Ahura Mazda, Ahura Mazda, Auharmazd, Auramazda, Hormazd, Hormazu, Horomazd, Living God, Mazda, Mazdah Ahura, Ohrmazd, Ohrmuzd, Ormazd, Ormuzd, Wise Lord, Persian, Ahura Mazdah, Armaiti, Aurharmazd, Hor(o)mazd, Kshathra, 'Living God', O(h)rmazd, O(h)rmuzd, Spenta Mainya, Sraosha, Vohu Manah, Armenian Aramazd, Assyrian Assara Mazas, Georgian Armaz, Greek Oromasdes, Zeus, Hindu Rudra or Varuna.

harvesptokhm

A tree said to produce the seed of all trees. In some references, identified as harvesptokhm.

Hasan

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hatak-mansarik

A part of the Avesta. This part deals with both legal and spiritual matters. The other two parts are the datik and the gatha. Occasionally referred to as hatak-mansarik.

hatif

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Haurvatat

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Hilyaish

A ruler of the jinn. In some accounts, referred to as Hilyaish.

Hitaspa

A demon. He killed the sage Urvakhshaya and was himself killed by his victim's brother, Keresaspa. Also called Hitaspa.

Homartes

A king. Father of Odatis. He refused to allow his daughter to marry Zariadres but she chose him anyway and they eloped together. Occasionally called Homartes, Omartes or Omartes.

Hoshang

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Housain

Brother of Ahmed. He owned the magic carpet featured in The Arabian Nights. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Housain, Houssain or Houssain.

House of Lies

The house of Ahriman. In some accounts, called House of Lies.

House of Song

The home of the righteous dead. Also known as House of Song.

Huban

An Elamite god. On occassion, referred to as Huban, Sumerian Enlil, Sumerian Enlil, Adad, Ellil, Kumarbi or Marduk.

Hukshedar-mah

Son of Zoroaster. One of the three versions of the saviours, born of a virgin birth. On occassion, known as Hukshedar-mah, Hukshetar-mah, Hukshetar-mah, Ukkshyat-nemah, Ukkshyat-nemah, Saoshyant, Saoshyant, Astvat-Ereta, Astvat-Eveta, Hushedar, Saoshyat, Soshans, Soshyant or Frashkart.

huma

A monster in the form of a restless bird. In some references, known as huma.

Hurabtil

An Elamite god. Occasionally referred to as Hurabtil, Lahurati, Lahurati, Lahurabtil, Lahurabtil, Sumerian Ninurta, Sumerian Ninurta or Zamama.

huran

Nymphs of paradise. Occasionally called huran.

Hushedar

Son of Zoroaster. One of the three saviours, born of a virgin birth. In some lore, occasionally called Hushedar, Ukhshyat-ereta, Ukhshyat-ereta, Hushetar, Hushetar, Saoshyant, Saoshyant, Astvat-Ereta, Astvat-Eveta, Hukshedar-mah, Saoshyat, Soshans, Soshyant or Frashkart.

Hutram

A god of the Elamites. Also identified as Hutram, Assyrian Uduran or Assyrian Uduran.

Hvaranah

One of the yazatas, 'glory'. The halo of a king. Occasionally referred to as Hvaranah.

Hvarekhshaeta

The sun, envisaged as the eye of Ahura Mazda. One of the Yazatas. At times, referred to as Hvarekhshaeta, Hvar, Hvar, Hvar-khshaeta or Hvar-khshaeta.

Hyaenae

Female celebrants of the orgies of Mithras. In the rites attended by these women, an ox was killed and its flesh eaten raw. Also called Hyaenae.

ija

An evil spirit: a devil. Also commonly called ija, ia or ia.

Indar

An early moon-god. In some references, identified as Indar, Indra, Indra, Andar, Indar or 'apostasy'.

Indiren

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. At times, identified as Indiren.

Indra

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Isfandiyar

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Izedi

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Izehne

A sacred book of the Parsees. Called Izehne, Iassen, Iassen, Izashine or Izashine.

Izha

A goddess of sacrifice. Also commonly referred to as Izha.

Jabru

A sky-god. Also identified as Jabru.

Jamshid

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Jann

The father of the jinn, in some accounts. Sometimes identified as Jann, jinnee, jinnee, djinn, djinni, genie, ginn, jinn, jinni, (d)jinni, femalejinniyah, plur(d)jinn, jann, Moroccan jnun, Pacific Islands jin or Persian narah.

Jeh

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Kahmaraj

A demon. Occasionally referred to as Kahmaraj.

kai

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Kaikobad

A mythical king mentioned in the Shah Name. Sometimes referred to as Kaikobad.

Kamak

A huge bird whose wings prevented. The rain from reaching earth, killed. By Keresaspa. Also commonly identified as Kamak, Kala, Kala, Kalak, ninvit or plurkalau.

Kaput

A storm-demon, in the form of a wolf, slain by Keresaspa. Sometimes referred to as Kaput.

kar-fish

A fish created by Ahura Mazda to guard the Goakerena tree. Sometimes known as kar-fish.

karapan

An idolatrous priest. Identified as karapan.

Karshipta

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Kasavya

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Kassim Baba

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Kava

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Kavah

A blacksmith-hero who fought the demon Zahak. Occasionally known as Kavah.

kavi

One of many types of demon. In some lore, occasionally known as kavi, kai, kai, kavan, kavya or Hindu kavya.

Kay Kaus

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Kay Khusraw

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Kay Kobad

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Keresaspa

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Keresavazdah

A demon of drought. Brother of Afrasiyab. He falsely accused Siyawush who was killed by Afrasiyab. Also called Keresavazdah.

Keshvar

One of the 6 sections into which the outer part of the world is divided. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Keshvar.

Khambaba

An ancient sun-god, in some accounts. Also known as Khambaba.

Khamseh

A 12th C. Book of legends. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Khamseh, Five Tales or Five Tales.

Khara

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Khasm

A later name for Aeshma. Referred to as Khasm, Aeshma, Aeshma, Aesma, Aeshma Daeva, Hebrew Asmodeus, Khism or Khism.

Khnathati

A sorceress. She once captured and seduced the hero Keresaspa but he escaped. Sometimes referred to as Khnathati.

Khoda

A supreme deity. Also known as Khoda.

Khurdhid

An ancient sun-god, forerunner of Hvarekhshaeta. In some references, known as Khurdhid, Greeek Helius or Greeek Helius.

Khvarenah

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khvarenah

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Korshid

The modern version of the old sungod, Hvarekhshaeta. In some references, called Korshid.

Kshathra Varya

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Kundrav

The name for Gandarewa in the Shah Name. On occassion, referred to as Kundrav, Gandarewa, Gandarewa or Gandarwa.

Labe

A queen in The Arabian Nights. She was a sorceress who could turn men into animals. Also referred to as Labe.

Leilah

The personification of female beauty. Lover of Mejnoun. Sometimes known as Leilah.

Leontes

Male celebrants of the rites of Mithra. In these rites, a bull was sacrificed and its raw flesh was eaten by the Leontes. At times, called Leontes.

Lesage

A demon opposing Sraosha. Sometimes referred to as Lesage.

Lucien

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magus

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Mah

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Mahre

An ancient name for Adam. Husband of Mahrianag. Also called Mahre.

Mahrianag

An ancient name for Eve. Wife of Mahre. In some references, called Mahrianag.

Mahrkusha

A demon of frost and snow. At times, identified as Mahrkusha.

Maidhyoi-Maongha

Cousin and first disciple of Zoroaster. Sometimes identified as Maidhyoi-Maongha.

Maliqa

A ruler of the jinn. Occasionally called Maliqa.

Malkosh

A rain-god. In some lore, occasionally known as Malkosh, Malqos or Malqos.

Manuchihir

A hero in the Shah Name. Occasionally called Manuchihir, Manucihr, Manucihr, Manushcithra or Manushcithra.

Mardash Nara

A demon. Occasionally identified as Mardash Nara.

Mashyane

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Mashye

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Mazainyon

Evil demons. Also called Mazainyon.

Mediator

A name and attribute of Mithra. Occasionally referred to as Mediator, Mithra, Mithra, Mitra, sacred birds, Mitra, Armenian Mihr, Hindu Mitra, Roman Mithras or Saturn.

Mejnoun

Lover of Leilah. On occassion, referred to as Mejnoun.

menog

Mind-spirit. Also commonly identified as menog, Spenta Mainya, Spenta Mainya, Ahura Mazda, Menog, Spenag Menog, Spenta Mainyu or (Spenag) Menog.

Mer-feast

A feast dedicated to the gods of nature in times of trouble such as famine or war. Sometimes known as Mer-feast.

Metra

An ancient fertility-goddess and moon-goddess. Sometimes identified as Metra, Mestra, Mestra or Metra.

Mihrajan

A six-day feast, in honour of Mithra, held in September. Identified as Mihrajan.

Mithra

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Morgiana

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Mount Alburz

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Mount Demavand

The place where Dahak was chained. By Thraetona. Also referred to as Mount Demavand.

Mount Hugar

The site of Urvis, the lake into which all waters flow and are purified. Also commonly referred to as Mount Hugar.

Mulatib

Father of Sahlub. Occasionally identified as Mulatib.

Mush

A demon in the form of a mouse that destroys the harvest. In some lore, occasionally identified as Mush.

Mushtari

The Persian name for Jupiter. On occassion, called Mushtari.

Nachunde

An Elamite sun-god. Sometimes known as Nachunde.

Nahhundi

An Elamite sun-god. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Nahhundi.

Nairyosangha

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Naonhaithya

A demon of discontent opposing Armaiti. In some accounts, this demon is a degenerate form of the Hindu Aswins. Also known as Naonhaithya, Naikiyas, Naikiyas, Nanikahet, Nanikahet, Naunhas, Naunhas, Pahlavi Naikiyas or Pahlavi Naikiyas.

Napir

An Elamite moon-god. In some accounts, called Napir.

nar

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narahs

Spirits. Called narahs, Muslim jinn or Muslim jinn.

Nariman

An aspect of Keresapa, in some accounts. Sometimes identified as Nariman, Keresaspa, Keresaspa, Garshasp, Krsaspa or Thraetona.

Narisah

A Manichaean goddess of light. In some versions, this deity is male and father of the so-called 'virgins of light'. Occasionally known as Narisah.

Nashak

A primaeval being. Consort of Siyamak. Mother of Fravak and Fravakain. On occassion, identified as Nashak.

Nasu

A female demon. This demon was said to cause the corruption of corpses. Others describe Nasu as a fly which crawls over rotting corpses. Sometimes referred to as Nasu.

Neriosang

An ancient messenger-god. In some references, called Neriosang.

Nerudee

A demon of the Austatikco- Pauligaur. Referred to as Nerudee.

Ninsusinak

A god of the Elamites. Occasionally called Ninsusinak.

Now Ruz

The Zoroastrian New Year festival, held. At the spring solstice. Also referred to as Now Ruz, Nau Rooz, Nau Rooz, No Roz, No Roz, Nau Rrooz or Nau Rrooz.

Odatis

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Open Sesame

A secret password. This phrase was used by the robbers in The Forty Thieves to open the door of their cave. Also commonly referred to as Open Sesame, Sesame or Sesame.

Oromasis

A demon in the form of a salamander. In some accounts, he was the father of Zoroaster. Also identified as Oromasis, Oromasdes, Oromasdes or Oromazdez.

ostrich

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pa-lis

An evil gnome. These beings were said to kill those who slept in the desert by licking their feet to suck out their blood. Occasionally known as pa-lis.

Padvaxtag

A Manichaean deity. He and Xrostag are a pair involved in the ritual of prayer and the answer to that prayer. On occassion, called Padvaxtag.

Pahlava

An ancient hero. Occasionally identified as Pahlava.

Pahlavi Zand

A commentary on the Avesta. Called Pahlavi Zand.

Pairika

A supernatural enchantress. These evil beings were the female counterparts of the Yatis. Also referred to as Pairika, Parik, Parik, peri, Parika, Parika, Parik(a) or Parik(a).

Parendi

A goddess of wealth. On occassion, known as Parendi, Hindu Purandhi or Hindu Purandhi.

peri

A fairy: a nymph of paradise, originally regarded as evil. In some references, called peri, feri, feri, Pairika, Pairika, Parik, Parika, Parik(a), pari, pari, pairika, pairika, pari(ka), pari(ka), Hindu Apsaras, Hindu Apsaras, Japanese Yosei, Japanese Yosei, patupaiarehe, New Zealand patupaiarehe, New Zealand patupaiarehe, Pahlavi parik or Pahlavi parik.

Peshdadiaus

A legendary dynasty. The exploits of these kings, said to have ruled some time before 600 BC, are described in the Shah Name. Also commonly known as Peshdadiaus.

Pinikirz

An Elamite mother-goddess. Also commonly known as Pinikirz, Pinenkir, Pinenkir, Pinikir or Pinikir.

piris

A spirit. On occassion, referred to as piris, Arab jinnee, Arab jinnee or jnun.

Pisear

A king. His magic spear was said to have come down to Lugh. In some lore, occasionally identified as Pisear.

Pitaona

A monster slain by Keresaspa. Also known as Pitaona.

Pourushaspa

A priest of the haoma in some accounts, father of Zoroaster. Called Pourushaspa.

Rakush

The horse of Rustem. He and his master were both killed when they fell into a pit filled with sharp-pointed spears. At times, called Rakush, Rakhsh, Rakhsh, Ruk(u)sh or Ruk(u)sh.

Rama

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Rapithwin

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Rashnu

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Rustamids

Descendants of the hero Rustem. Sometimes identified as Rustamids.

Rustem

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sacred thread

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Sadda

A Zoroastrian sacred book. Also commonly identified as Sadda.

Saena

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Sahlub

Son of Mulatib. He was sent by Azazil as an envoy to the rebellious jinn who killed him. Sometimes identified as Sahlub.

Salm

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Sam

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Saoshyant

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Satavesa

A star-spirit created by Ahura Mazda. Ruler of the west. Sometimes identified as Satavesa.

Saura

A demon, 'misgovernment', opposing. Kshathra Varya. In some accounts, called Saura, Sauru or Sauru.

Schacabac

In "The Arabian Nights", a beggar who was the subject of the cruel jest of Barmecide's feast. Also identified as Schacabac, Shacabac or Shacabac.

Scheherazade

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senmerv

A fabulous bird. This enemy of snakes was said to be part bird, part mammal. Occasionally identified as senmerv, samurv, samurv, senmurv, senmurv, seymorg, seymorg, simurgh, simurgh, Saena Meregha, akra, samru, simorg, simurg, sinurgh, Arab anqa, roc, Russian sinam(ru), phoenix, saena or simarghu.

Seven Wise Masters

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Shah Name

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Shahrijah

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Shazu

A river-god. Occasionally called Shazu, Marduk, Marduk, Adad, Addu, Amarud, Amurru-Ramman, Assaluha, Avenger, Hegal, Marlah, Murduk, Qaru, Samas, Suhgurim, Zisi, Agaku, Agilma, Amaradu(k), Aranunna, Asai, As(s)alluha, Asar(i), Asaru(alim) Asaruludu, Bel(-Enlil) Bel-Marduk, Bel Matai, Epadum, Gibil, Gil(ma), (Gish) Qaru, Gugal, Iku, Irkingu, Lugal-Dimmer-An-Ki-A, Kinma, Marad, Namru, Namtillaku, Nari, Sandan, S(h)amas(h), Sin, Sirsir, Tuku, Tutu, Usire, Zah(gu)rim, Ziku, Ziukinna, Zulum, Assyrian Ashur, Greek Zeus, Hebrew Merodach, Sumerian Enlil, Tagtug or Shulpae.

Shelan Nara

A demon. Also identified as Shelan Nara.

Siltim

A malevolent forest-demon. In some lore, occasionally called Siltim.

simarghu

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simurgh

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Siyamak

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Siyawush

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Snavidka

A sleet-demon. This being was killed by Keresaspa. Sometimes known as Snavidka.

Sohrab

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Spandaramet

A name for hell. At times, called Spandaramet.

Spenishta

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Spenjaghyra

A demon killed by Vazishta. (lightning). Occasionally identified as Spenjaghyra.

Spenta Mainya

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Spityura

Brother of Yima. He was said to have killed his brother by sawing him in half. In some accounts, known as Spityura.

Sraosha

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Srishok

A celestial ox due to be sacrificed at the renovation following the end of the world. Also called Srishok.

Srosh

A messenger of the gods. It was his duty to tell the king when his time on earth was up. In some references, known as Srosh.

Srvara

A storm-demon. This being was slain by Keresaspa. Also commonly referred to as Srvara.

Sudabe

A Yemeni princess. Wife of Kay Kaus. Mother of Siyawush. Occasionally known as Sudabe, Sudabah or Sudabah.

Susinak

The god of Susa. Also referred to as Susinak.

Tahmurath

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Tamine

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Tarnush

A jinnee. Sometimes identified as Tarnush.

Tashan

A creator-god. Occasionally known as Tashan.

Taurvi

A demon opposing Ameretat. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Taurvi.

Tazh

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Thraetona

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Thrita Athwya

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Tistrya

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Tur

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Tushnamatay

A goddess of meditation. Occasionally known as Tushnamatay.

Tuti-Nameh

The Persian version of Shukasaptati. Sometimes identified as Tuti-Nameh.

Ur-Kuh

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Urvakhshaya

A wise counsellor. Brother of Keresaspa. He was killed by the demon Hitaspa but Keresaspa avenged his brother's death by killing the demon. Sometimes called Urvakhshaya.

urvan

The soul. Also commonly known as urvan.

Urvazishta

One of the 5 types of sacred fire. This type is the fire which exists in plants or is caused by friction. Also identified as Urvazishta, Bahram fire, Bahram fire, sacred fire, Spenishta, Vazishta, Vohu Fryana or Berezisavanh.

Urvis

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Uzava Tumaspana

A rain-spirit. In some accounts it was this spirit, rather than the hero Rustem, who overcame the demon Afrasiyab. Known as Uzava Tumaspana.

Vahram

The Pahlavi version of Bahram. On occassion, identified as Vahram.

Vaivoo

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. Also commonly identified as Vaivoo.

Vanainti

A goddess of victory. Sometimes referred to as Vanainti, Uparatat, Uparatat, Vanant, Vanant or Vanand.

Vanant

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Var

A cave or enclosure built by Yima in which he and the selected species. Survived the Flood. Occasionally known as Var.

Varagna

An incarnation of Verethragna as a falcon or raven. Also commonly referred to as Varagna.

Vareghna

The god Verethragna in the form of a raven. Also called Vareghna, Verethragna, Verethragna, Atar, Varhagn, Verethraghna, Vrthragna, Vrtragna, Vrt(h)ragna, Armenian Vahagn, Greek Heracles, Hindu Indra, Vritrahan, Bahram or Thraetona.

Varena

Heaven. This region is depicted as fourcornered and was the site of the battle between Azhi Dahak and Thraetona. Also known as Varena.

Vareshava

A monster slain by Keresaspa. Sometimes known as Vareshava.

Varoonon

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. Also commonly called Varoonon.

Vata

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Vayu

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Vazishta

One of the 5 types of sacred fire. This type of fire is lightning. At times, identified as Vazishta, Bahram fire, Bahram fire, sacred fire, Spenishta, Urvazishta, Vohu Fryana or Berezisavanh.

Vendidad

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Verethragna

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Viraf

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Vishtaspa

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Visperad

The second part of the Avesta: a liturgy in the Avesta. In some references, referred to as Visperad, Visparad, Visparad, Vispered or Vispered.

Vistauru

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Vivahvant

A sun-god. Father of Jamahid or Yima and Yimeh. Occasionally referred to as Vivahvant, Vivanghvant, Vivanghvant, Hindu Vivasvat or Hindu Vivasvat.

Vohu Fryana

One of the 5 types of sacred fire. This type is the one that keeps warm the bodies of animals and humans. Occasionally identified as Vohu Fryana, Bahram fire, Bahram fire, sacred fire, Spenishta, Urvazishta, Vazishta or Berezisavanh.

Vohu Manah

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Vourokasha

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Xrostrag

A Manichaean diety. He and Padvaxtag are a pair involved in the ritual of prayer and the answer to that prayer. In some references, known as Xrostrag.

Yama

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Yashts

Hymns in the Avesta: stories of the gods (yazatas): hymns to the angels and heroes. At times, identified as Yashts, Yasts or Yasts.

Yasna

The third part of the Zend-Avesta. Sometimes called Yasna.

Yati

Sorcerers: male counterparts of the Pairika. In some accounts, known as Yati.

Yazata

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Yazdan

A Yazata as a benevolent spirit in modern belief. Also commonly referred to as Yazdan, Yazata, Yazata, Yazad, Zyed, 'the wonderful one' or Yaxzata.

Yeshm

Jade or a drink made from it. At times, identified as Yeshm, Chinese Yü, Chinese Yü, Sootash, Turkish Sootash, Turkish Sootash, , , or Persian Yeshm.

Yima

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Yimeh

Sister of Tamurath and Yima. On occassion, identified as Yimeh, Yimaha, Yimaha, Yimak, Yimak, Yimaka, Yimaka, Yimak(a), Yimak(a), Hindu Yami or Hindu Yami.

Yoishta

A legendary hero. He solved the ninety-nine riddles posed by Akhtya who, failing to answer Yoishta's three riddles, was killed. In some lore, occasionally identified as Yoishta.

Yusuf ibn Wasif

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Zahak

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Zairicha

A demon opposing Hauravat. Sometimes referred to as Zairicha.

Zal

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Zam-Armatay

An earth-goddess. Occasionally known as Zam-Armatay.

Zamin

An earth-goddess. At times, known as Zamin.

Zaothra

Holy water used in Zoroastrian rites. Called Zaothra.

Zariadres

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Zem

An earth-god. One of the Yazatas. Occasionally identified as Zem.

Zend

A commentary on the Avesta. Sometimes referred to as Zend, Zand, Zand, Zend-Avesta or Zend-Avesta.

Zoroaster

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Zurvan

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Persian Mythology