Persian Lore, Gods, Demigods, Heroes, Symbols, and Other Famous Mythological Characters

Abans

A spirit that inhabits iron ore mines. In some lore, occasionally known as Abans.

Abdallah the Fisherman

read more »

Abou Hassan

read more »

Adversary, The

A name for Ahriman. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Adversary, The.

Aeshma

A demon of violence opposing Sraosha or Vohu Manah. Sometimes identified as Aeshma, Aesma, Aesma, Aeshma Daeva, Aeshma Daeva, Khasm, Khasm, Khism, Hebrew Asmodeus or Hebrew Asmodeus.

Afrasiyab

read more »

Aftab

A sun deity. At times, known as Aftab, Babylonian Samas, Babylonian Samas, Aliha, Chemosh, Samos, Sams, Sapas, Shullat or Utu.

Agas

A demon causing illness. Sometimes called Agas.

Ahaharnaz

One of the wives of Azhi Dahak. Thraetona fathered three sons, Eraj, Salm and Tur, on Aranvaz and Ahaharnaz. At times, identified as Ahaharnaz.

Ahriman

read more »

Ahurani

A Zoroastrian water-goddess, goddess of fertility, health and prosperity. In some references, called Ahurani.

Airyaman

A god of friendship and healing. Sometimes known as Airyaman, Irman, Irman or Aryamon.

Airyano Vaejo

A happy land; a paradise or Eden. At times, identified as Airyano Vaejo.

Aja'ib al-Makhluqat

The story of the various wonders of the world then existing. In some lore, occasionally known as Aja'ib al-Makhluqat, Wonders of Creation or Wonders of Creation.

Akah Manah

A demon of evil thought opposing. Vohu Manah. On occassion, referred to as Akah Manah, Aka Manah or Aka Manah.

Akhtar

The 12 constellations of the Zodiac. These are envisaged as the leaders of Ahura Mazda's army. Sometimes identified as Akhtar.

Akhtya

The chief of the Yatis, the Zoroastrian. Sorcerers. In some accounts a demon who was killed when he failed to answer three riddles posed by Yoishta. Also referred to as Akhtya.

Akoman

An evil spirit that takes possession of liars. Referred to as Akoman, Ako Mana or Ako Mana.

Akwan

An evil demon. He once found Rustem asleep and threw him into the sea. Called Akwan.

Al

read more »

Alnaschar

read more »

Ameretat

read more »

Amesha Spentas

read more »

Anahita

read more »

Anaitis

read more »

Angra Mainya

read more »

Aniran

A sky-god assisting Kshathra Varya. Occasionally referred to as Aniran.

Anwar-u-Suhali

The modern Persian version of the Panchantantra. Also called Anwar-u-Suhali.

Aosnara

read more »

Apam Napat

read more »

Apaosha

A demon of drought. In the form of a black stallion, he fought the rain god Tistrya, who took the form of a white stallion. Also called Apaosha.

Apo

read more »

Aranvaz

One of the wives of Azhi Dahak. Thraetona fathered three sons, Eraj, Salm and Tur, with Aranvaz and Ahaharnaz. Sometimes identified as Aranvaz.

Aranzakh

read more »

Arda Viraz

read more »

Ardad

A demon who misdirects travellers. Identified as Ardad.

Ardashir

A hero. Son of Babak. Known as Ardashir.

Ardokhsha

A goddess of good fortune. At times, identified as Ardokhsha, Greek Tyche, Greek Tyche, Fors, Fortuna or Nortia.

Aredvi

A mythical river, one of the 4 flowing from the lake on the holy mountain, Mount Alburz. Also referred to as Aredvi.

Aredvi Sura Anahita

read more »

Arejataspa

An opponent of Zoroaster. King Vishtaspa, who was converted by Zoroaster, fought several battles with Arejataspa and finally defeated him. Occasionally identified as Arejataspa.

Arezoshamana

A demon killed by Keresaspa. Also known as Arezoshamana.

Arishtat

A goddess of truth and honesty. Occasionally identified as Arishtat.

Armageddon

read more »

Armaiti

read more »

Arsaces

A divine ancestor of the Persians. At times, identified as Arsaces.

Arsacids

A dynasty said to be descended from Arsaces. At times, identified as Arsacids.

Arta Viraf

A sage who visited the Otherworld and returned safely. In some lore, occasionally known as Arta Viraf.

Arzang

read more »

Asaph

A mythical keeper of the forests. In some references, referred to as Asaph.

Asdeev

A white dragon defeated by Rustem. Also called Asdeev.

Asha Vahishta

read more »

Ashi

A beneficent deity. Daughter of Amaitis. Also referred to as Ashi.

Asho-Zushta

The owl. This bird is said to drive away demons by reciting from the Avesta. In some references, referred to as Asho-Zushta.

Asman

A sky-god assisting Kshathra Varya. At times, referred to as Asman.

Asto-vidhotu

A plague demon. He was later elevated to the role of god of death. In some lore, occasionally known as Asto-vidhotu, Asto-vidatu or Asto-vidatu.

Astyages

read more »

Atar

read more »

Atash Bahram

A fire temple. This, the seventh creation of Ahura Mazda, is regarded as representing cosmic fire. In some lore, occasionally identified as Atash Bahram.

Atesha-ga

read more »

Atharvan

A fire priest. Sometimes known as Atharvan.

Athwya

A primaeval hero. He is said to be the second man to make haoma. In some references, called Athwya.

Augne-Baugauven

A god of fire. In some accounts, known as Augne-Baugauven.

Aurvataspos

The man to whom Kay Khusraw handed his throne when he disappeared into the mountains. Also commonly identified as Aurvataspos.

Austatikco-Pauligaur

A group of 8 demons guarding. The world. Also identified as Austatikco-Pauligaur.

Autak

A half-human demon. Mother of Azhi Dahak. In some accounts, identified as Autak, Udai, Udai, Vatak, Vatak, Udai-Vatak or Udai-Vatak.

Avesta

read more »

Az

The female principle of greed. At the final battle, this demon will be defeated and confined eternally to hell. At times, called Az.

Azadeh

read more »

Azhi Dahak

read more »

Azi

A demon preying on beautiful women. At times, known as Azi.

Bab-ed-Din

The Gate of Righteousness', a name of Mirza Ali Mohammed. Also known as Bab-ed-Din.

Babak

Father of Ardashir. On occassion, called Babak.

Bad

A storm jinnee. In some lore, occasionally identified as Bad.

Bag-Mashtu

A sky-god, predecessor of Ahura Mazda. Occasionally identified as Bag-Mashtu, Bag-Mazda, Bag-Mazda, Urartian Khaldu or Urartian Khaldu.

Baga

A name for god. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Baga.

Bagistane

A sacred rock peak. Identified as Bagistane, Behistoon or Behistoon.

Bahman

Son of Isfandiyar. He killed the hero Rustem who had earlier killed Bahman's father. In some accounts, identified as Bahman, Vohu Manah, Vohu Manah, Ahura Mazda, Bahman, Vahman or 'good thought'.

Bahram

A god of victory, god of Mars and god of travellers. In some references, referred to as Bahram, Vahagn, Vahagn, Vasapaklal, Greek Heracles, Hindu Vritrahan, Persian Verethragna, Verethragna, Verethragna, Atar, Varhagn, Verethraghna, Vrthragna, Vrtragna, Vrt(h)ragna, Armenian Vahagn, Hindu Indra, Vritrahan, Thraetona, Vareghna, Pahlavi Vahram or Pahlavi Vahram.

Bahram fire

read more »

Bahram Gur

read more »

Bahram Yasht

A fabulous bird of fire. This bird's feathers were used to repel demons. Zoroaster brushed his body with them to make himself invulnerable. At times, identified as Bahram Yasht.

Barashnum

A ceremony to expel demons that lasts for 9 days. At times, called Barashnum.

barsom

read more »

Bedreddin Hassan

A prince. In The Arabian Nights, he was captured and became a cook. Sometimes identified as Bedreddin Hassan.

Berejya

A guardian spirit. He sends the bird Camrosh to help Iranians attacked by outsiders. Sometimes called Berejya.

Biducht

A love-goddess. On occassion, referred to as Biducht, Greek Aphrodite, Greek Aphrodite, Alilat, Anahit, Anahita, Anaitis, Aphrodisias, Aprodita, Argimpasa, Astarte, Caelestis, Concordia, Hathor, Ishtar, Mylitta, Rati, Syrian Goddess or Turan.

Bundahishn

Writings about the creation and its purpose. These myths were said to have been revealed by Ahura Mazda directly to Zoroaster. Also commonly called Bundahishn.

Buriash

A storm-god or war-god of the Kassites. Occasionally identified as Buriash, Burijash, Burijash, Buriyas, Buriyas, Lord of Lands or Lord of Lands.

Burzhin

Genii, members of the yazata. Identified as Burzhin.

Bushyanasta

A demon of lethargy: a druj. Sometimes identified as Bushyanasta, Bushyasta, Bushyasta, Bushynasta, Bushynasta, Bushy(n)asta or Bushy(n)asta.

Caena-maergha

A monstrous evil bird. Called Caena-maergha, Hebrew Ziz or Hebrew Ziz.

Camaralzaman

A prince in the Arabian Nights story of The Adventures of Prince Camaralzaman and Badoura. Occasionally known as Camaralzaman.

Camrosh

read more »

Castle of Light

read more »

Caut

A torch bearer. He and Cautopat represent the rising and setting sun. Also known as Caut, Cautes or Cautes.

Cautopat

He and Caut represent the rising and setting sun. At times, referred to as Cautopat, Cautopathes or Cautopathes.

Chinvat Bridge

read more »

Chinvat Puhl

The Pahlavi name for the Chinvat Bridge. Sometimes called Chinvat Puhl, Chinvat Bridge, Chinvat Bridge, Bridge of the Decider, Chinvat Peretu, Cinvat, Cinvato Peretu, Pul Cinavad, Pul Chinvar, Cinvato PeretuPul Chinavad or Pul Chinavar.

Chur

An archangel. A quadrant of the sun's disc. Also called Chur, Rod, Rod, Chur, Rodu, Svantevit or Latvian Svantevit.

City of Brass

A city said to have been built by Alexander the Great. Occasionally identified as City of Brass.

Cyrus

read more »

Dadophori

In Mithraism, the twins life and death. These divinities are depicted as a bull and a scorpion. Also referred to as Dadophori.

Dal

A hero who fell in love with a girl he. Had never seen. Also commonly known as Dal.

Dalhan

read more »

Damrukh Nara

A demon. Also known as Damrukh Nara.

datik

Part of the Avesta. This part of the Avesta dealt with the laws. The other two parts were the gatha and the hatak-mansarif. In some lore, occasionally identified as datik.

Dena

A goddess, religion personified. Daughter of Ahura Mazda. On occassion, called Dena, Daena or Daena.

dendan

A sea monster in The Arabian Nights. It was said that if this monster touched human flesh or even heard a human voice, it died. Also commonly called dendan.

Dervaspa

A guardian deity of cattle. Also called Dervaspa, Gosh or Gosh.

Desert of Demons

A part of the realm of Jinnestan. Also known as Desert of Demons, Badiatealgim or Badiatealgim.

Desert of Monsters

Part of the realm of Jinnestan. Referred to as Desert of Monsters, Badiat-Coldare or Badiat-Coldare.

Dew-i-safid

In some accounts, the demon who captured and blinded Kay Kaus. Known as Dew-i-safid, White Demon, The, White Demon, The, Dew-i-Safid, The White Demon, The White Demon, Arzang, Arzang, Arzend or Diw-a-Safid.

Dinkard

read more »

Dir

A demon. On occassion, referred to as Dir.

div

read more »

Drugh

The force of disorder. Also called Drugh, Druj, Druj, Angra Mainya, Drauga, Drug, Durugh, 'deceit', Drug, 'lie' or 'lie'.

Druj

The place of torment: a name for Angra Mainya: a female demon of falsehood. Sometimes known as Druj, Angra Mainya, Angra Mainya, Ahriman, Angra Mainyu, Angru Mainyu, Anra Mainyu, Angra Main(y)u, Angro Mainyus, Drauga, Drug, Drug, Drugh, Drugh, Durugh, 'lie', 'deceit' or 'deceit'.

Druj Nasu

A corpse demon that takes possession of the dead in the form of a fly. In some accounts, known as Druj Nasu.

Drvaspa

One of the Yazatas. In some lore, occasionally called Drvaspa.

Dur

A Kassite god of the underworld. Sometimes referred to as Dur.

Duzzakh

Purgatory. Here the soul could be plunged into flames to purge it of evil. At times, known as Duzzakh.

Eemen

A demon, one of the 8 Austatikco-Pauligaur. At times, identified as Eemen.

Eraj

read more »

Eredatfedhri

The personification of virginity. She is in perpetual conflict with the harlot-demon, Jeh. Sometimes known as Eredatfedhri.

Essaunien

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. At times, referred to as Essaunien, Shivven or Shivven.

Ezhdeha

A demon, a form of Azhi Dahak. In some references, identified as Ezhdeha, Azhi Dahak, Azhi Dahak, Azhdak, Azhi Dahaka, Azidahaka, Bevarash, Dahak, Dahaki, Dahhak, Dhaki, Vishap, Vishapa, Zahhak, Dahak(i), Vishap(a), Zah(h)ak, Zuhak or Zahak.

Fatima

read more »

Firdausi

The 10th C. Author of Shah Name. Sometimes referred to as Firdausi, Firdawsi or Firdawsi.

Frashkart

read more »

fravashi

A guardian spirit: an ancestral spirit. These beings are infinite in number and rank below the izedi. Also known as fravashi, feroher, feroher, ferouer, ferouer, fravahar, fravahar, frav(ah)ar or frav(ah)ar.

Frobach

A sacred fire. One of the yazatas, fire personified. This fire, together with Burzhin Mitro and Gushasp, protected the country. At times, called Frobach, Frobagh, Frobagh, Frobak or Frobak.

Gandarewa

read more »

Gaokerena

read more »

Garo Nmana

A paradise, home of the faithful dead. In some accounts, known as Garo Nmana, Garotman or Garotman.

gatha

read more »

Gayomart

read more »

Geush Tasan

A cattle-god. In some references, known as Geush Tasan, Geus Tasan or Geus Tasan.

Geush Urvan

read more »

Gew

read more »

ghol

A ghoul. In some references, referred to as ghol, Arab ghul, Arab ghul or ghoul.

Gooberen

A demon, one of the Aristatikco-Pauligaur. In some lore, occasionally called Gooberen.

Gosurvan

An angel. In some accounts, Gosurvan is one of the Amesha Spentas. Occasionally identified as Gosurvan, Geush Urvan, Geush Urvan, Geus Urvan, Goshurun, Goshurvan or Gesurvan.

Gudarz

read more »

Gushasp

A sacred fire. This fire, together with Burzhin, Mitro and Frobach, protected the country. In some lore, occasionally known as Gushasp.

Hadhayosh

A primaeval ox. The beast carried people across the primordial waters that were known as Vourukasha. Also called Hadhayosh, Hadhayaosh, Hadhayaosh, Sarsaok, Sarsaok, Hebrew Behemoth or Hebrew Behemoth.

Hamestagen

Purgatory. At times, identified as Hamestagen, Hamistakan or Hamistakan.

Hamus

A ruler of the jinn. Also called Hamus.

Haoma

read more »

Hapto-iringa

The constellation the Great Bear; Leader of the northern quarter. Occasionally called Hapto-iringa, Haptok-ring or Haptok-ring.

Haravaiti

A river-goddess. In some references, referred to as Haravaiti, Afghan Helmund or Afghan Helmund.

Harvatat

An aspect of Ahura Mazda as 'integrity'. Occasionally identified as Harvatat, Ahura Mazda, Ahura Mazda, Auharmazd, Auramazda, Hormazd, Hormazu, Horomazd, Living God, Mazda, Mazdah Ahura, Ohrmazd, Ohrmuzd, Ormazd, Ormuzd, Wise Lord, Persian, Ahura Mazdah, Armaiti, Aurharmazd, Hor(o)mazd, Kshathra, 'Living God', O(h)rmazd, O(h)rmuzd, Spenta Mainya, Sraosha, Vohu Manah, Armenian Aramazd, Assyrian Assara Mazas, Georgian Armaz, Greek Oromasdes, Zeus, Hindu Rudra or Varuna.

harvesptokhm

A tree said to produce the seed of all trees. Also referred to as harvesptokhm.

Hasan

read more »

hatak-mansarik

A part of the Avesta. This part deals with both legal and spiritual matters. The other two parts are the datik and the gatha. In some accounts, called hatak-mansarik.

hatif

read more »

Haurvatat

read more »

Hilyaish

A ruler of the jinn. At times, called Hilyaish.

Hitaspa

A demon. He killed the sage Urvakhshaya and was himself killed by his victim's brother, Keresaspa. Occasionally called Hitaspa.

Homartes

A king. Father of Odatis. He refused to allow his daughter to marry Zariadres but she chose him anyway and they eloped together. Also called Homartes, Omartes or Omartes.

Hoshang

read more »

Housain

Brother of Ahmed. He owned the magic carpet featured in The Arabian Nights. Referred to as Housain, Houssain or Houssain.

House of Lies

The house of Ahriman. Occasionally identified as House of Lies.

House of Song

The home of the righteous dead. Sometimes referred to as House of Song.

Huban

An Elamite god. On occassion, called Huban, Sumerian Enlil, Sumerian Enlil, Adad, Ellil, Kumarbi or Marduk.

Hukshedar-mah

Son of Zoroaster. One of the three versions of the saviours, born of a virgin birth. At times, identified as Hukshedar-mah, Hukshetar-mah, Hukshetar-mah, Ukkshyat-nemah, Ukkshyat-nemah, Saoshyant, Saoshyant, Astvat-Ereta, Astvat-Eveta, Hushedar, Saoshyat, Soshans, Soshyant or Frashkart.

huma

A monster in the form of a restless bird. On occassion, called huma.

Hurabtil

An Elamite god. On occassion, identified as Hurabtil, Lahurati, Lahurati, Lahurabtil, Lahurabtil, Sumerian Ninurta, Sumerian Ninurta or Zamama.

huran

Nymphs of paradise. At times, called huran.

Hushedar

Son of Zoroaster. One of the three saviours, born of a virgin birth. Sometimes known as Hushedar, Ukhshyat-ereta, Ukhshyat-ereta, Hushetar, Hushetar, Saoshyant, Saoshyant, Astvat-Ereta, Astvat-Eveta, Hukshedar-mah, Saoshyat, Soshans, Soshyant or Frashkart.

Hutram

A god of the Elamites. Occasionally identified as Hutram, Assyrian Uduran or Assyrian Uduran.

Hvaranah

One of the yazatas, 'glory'. The halo of a king. Also commonly known as Hvaranah.

Hvarekhshaeta

The sun, envisaged as the eye of Ahura Mazda. One of the Yazatas. In some references, referred to as Hvarekhshaeta, Hvar, Hvar, Hvar-khshaeta or Hvar-khshaeta.

Hyaenae

Female celebrants of the orgies of Mithras. In the rites attended by these women, an ox was killed and its flesh eaten raw. Known as Hyaenae.

ija

An evil spirit: a devil. Occasionally known as ija, ia or ia.

Indar

An early moon-god. In some lore, occasionally known as Indar, Indra, Indra, Andar, Indar or 'apostasy'.

Indiren

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. Identified as Indiren.

Indra

read more »

Isfandiyar

read more »

Izedi

read more »

Izehne

A sacred book of the Parsees. Occasionally known as Izehne, Iassen, Iassen, Izashine or Izashine.

Izha

A goddess of sacrifice. In some lore, occasionally identified as Izha.

Jabru

A sky-god. At times, known as Jabru.

Jamshid

read more »

Jann

The father of the jinn, in some accounts. Also commonly called Jann, jinnee, jinnee, djinn, djinni, genie, ginn, jinn, jinni, (d)jinni, femalejinniyah, plur(d)jinn, jann, Moroccan jnun, Pacific Islands jin or Persian narah.

Jeh

read more »

Kahmaraj

A demon. Occasionally identified as Kahmaraj.

kai

read more »

Kaikobad

A mythical king mentioned in the Shah Name. Occasionally called Kaikobad.

Kamak

A huge bird whose wings prevented. The rain from reaching earth, killed. By Keresaspa. In some accounts, referred to as Kamak, Kala, Kala, Kalak, ninvit or plurkalau.

Kaput

A storm-demon, in the form of a wolf, slain by Keresaspa. Occasionally referred to as Kaput.

kar-fish

A fish created by Ahura Mazda to guard the Goakerena tree. On occassion, referred to as kar-fish.

karapan

An idolatrous priest. Identified as karapan.

Karshipta

read more »

Kasavya

read more »

Kassim Baba

read more »

Kava

read more »

Kavah

A blacksmith-hero who fought the demon Zahak. In some accounts, identified as Kavah.

kavi

One of many types of demon. Identified as kavi, kai, kai, kavan, kavya or Hindu kavya.

Kay Kaus

read more »

Kay Khusraw

read more »

Kay Kobad

read more »

Keresaspa

read more »

Keresavazdah

A demon of drought. Brother of Afrasiyab. He falsely accused Siyawush who was killed by Afrasiyab. Occasionally known as Keresavazdah.

Keshvar

One of the 6 sections into which the outer part of the world is divided. Sometimes known as Keshvar.

Khambaba

An ancient sun-god, in some accounts. Also called Khambaba.

Khamseh

A 12th C. Book of legends. Occasionally known as Khamseh, Five Tales or Five Tales.

Khara

read more »

Khasm

A later name for Aeshma. Called Khasm, Aeshma, Aeshma, Aesma, Aeshma Daeva, Hebrew Asmodeus, Khism or Khism.

Khnathati

A sorceress. She once captured and seduced the hero Keresaspa but he escaped. At times, known as Khnathati.

Khoda

A supreme deity. Also identified as Khoda.

Khurdhid

An ancient sun-god, forerunner of Hvarekhshaeta. In some references, identified as Khurdhid, Greeek Helius or Greeek Helius.

Khvarenah

read more »

khvarenah

read more »

Korshid

The modern version of the old sungod, Hvarekhshaeta. In some accounts, called Korshid.

Kshathra Varya

read more »

Kundrav

The name for Gandarewa in the Shah Name. Also known as Kundrav, Gandarewa, Gandarewa or Gandarwa.

Labe

A queen in The Arabian Nights. She was a sorceress who could turn men into animals. At times, known as Labe.

Leilah

The personification of female beauty. Lover of Mejnoun. In some accounts, called Leilah.

Leontes

Male celebrants of the rites of Mithra. In these rites, a bull was sacrificed and its raw flesh was eaten by the Leontes. In some accounts, identified as Leontes.

Lesage

A demon opposing Sraosha. Sometimes known as Lesage.

Lucien

read more »

magus

read more »

Mah

read more »

Mahre

An ancient name for Adam. Husband of Mahrianag. In some references, called Mahre.

Mahrianag

An ancient name for Eve. Wife of Mahre. Sometimes called Mahrianag.

Mahrkusha

A demon of frost and snow. In some lore, occasionally known as Mahrkusha.

Maidhyoi-Maongha

Cousin and first disciple of Zoroaster. In some references, referred to as Maidhyoi-Maongha.

Maliqa

A ruler of the jinn. Also called Maliqa.

Malkosh

A rain-god. On occassion, referred to as Malkosh, Malqos or Malqos.

Manuchihir

A hero in the Shah Name. In some references, called Manuchihir, Manucihr, Manucihr, Manushcithra or Manushcithra.

Mardash Nara

A demon. In some accounts, referred to as Mardash Nara.

Mashyane

read more »

Mashye

read more »

Mazainyon

Evil demons. Also known as Mazainyon.

Mediator

A name and attribute of Mithra. In some accounts, referred to as Mediator, Mithra, Mithra, Mitra, sacred birds, Mitra, Armenian Mihr, Hindu Mitra, Roman Mithras or Saturn.

Mejnoun

Lover of Leilah. Also identified as Mejnoun.

menog

Mind-spirit. At times, identified as menog, Spenta Mainya, Spenta Mainya, Ahura Mazda, Menog, Spenag Menog, Spenta Mainyu or (Spenag) Menog.

Mer-feast

A feast dedicated to the gods of nature in times of trouble such as famine or war. Occasionally called Mer-feast.

Metra

An ancient fertility-goddess and moon-goddess. Also commonly called Metra, Mestra, Mestra or Metra.

Mihrajan

A six-day feast, in honour of Mithra, held in September. Sometimes known as Mihrajan.

Mithra

read more »

Morgiana

read more »

Mount Alburz

read more »

Mount Demavand

The place where Dahak was chained. By Thraetona. In some lore, occasionally called Mount Demavand.

Mount Hugar

The site of Urvis, the lake into which all waters flow and are purified. Called Mount Hugar.

Mulatib

Father of Sahlub. At times, identified as Mulatib.

Mush

A demon in the form of a mouse that destroys the harvest. Known as Mush.

Mushtari

The Persian name for Jupiter. Referred to as Mushtari.

Nachunde

An Elamite sun-god. Identified as Nachunde.

Nahhundi

An Elamite sun-god. Sometimes identified as Nahhundi.

Nairyosangha

read more »

Naonhaithya

A demon of discontent opposing Armaiti. In some accounts, this demon is a degenerate form of the Hindu Aswins. Also called Naonhaithya, Naikiyas, Naikiyas, Nanikahet, Nanikahet, Naunhas, Naunhas, Pahlavi Naikiyas or Pahlavi Naikiyas.

Napir

An Elamite moon-god. In some lore, occasionally called Napir.

nar

read more »

narahs

Spirits. In some lore, occasionally identified as narahs, Muslim jinn or Muslim jinn.

Nariman

An aspect of Keresapa, in some accounts. Sometimes referred to as Nariman, Keresaspa, Keresaspa, Garshasp, Krsaspa or Thraetona.

Narisah

A Manichaean goddess of light. In some versions, this deity is male and father of the so-called 'virgins of light'. On occassion, identified as Narisah.

Nashak

A primaeval being. Consort of Siyamak. Mother of Fravak and Fravakain. Also called Nashak.

Nasu

A female demon. This demon was said to cause the corruption of corpses. Others describe Nasu as a fly which crawls over rotting corpses. Sometimes called Nasu.

Neriosang

An ancient messenger-god. At times, identified as Neriosang.

Nerudee

A demon of the Austatikco- Pauligaur. In some lore, occasionally known as Nerudee.

Ninsusinak

A god of the Elamites. Also referred to as Ninsusinak.

Now Ruz

The Zoroastrian New Year festival, held. At the spring solstice. In some references, identified as Now Ruz, Nau Rooz, Nau Rooz, No Roz, No Roz, Nau Rrooz or Nau Rrooz.

Odatis

read more »

Open Sesame

A secret password. This phrase was used by the robbers in The Forty Thieves to open the door of their cave. Identified as Open Sesame, Sesame or Sesame.

Oromasis

A demon in the form of a salamander. In some accounts, he was the father of Zoroaster. Sometimes referred to as Oromasis, Oromasdes, Oromasdes or Oromazdez.

ostrich

read more »

pa-lis

An evil gnome. These beings were said to kill those who slept in the desert by licking their feet to suck out their blood. Called pa-lis.

Padvaxtag

A Manichaean deity. He and Xrostag are a pair involved in the ritual of prayer and the answer to that prayer. In some accounts, called Padvaxtag.

Pahlava

An ancient hero. Sometimes identified as Pahlava.

Pahlavi Zand

A commentary on the Avesta. On occassion, called Pahlavi Zand.

Pairika

A supernatural enchantress. These evil beings were the female counterparts of the Yatis. Also known as Pairika, Parik, Parik, peri, Parika, Parika, Parik(a) or Parik(a).

Parendi

A goddess of wealth. Also known as Parendi, Hindu Purandhi or Hindu Purandhi.

peri

A fairy: a nymph of paradise, originally regarded as evil. In some lore, occasionally identified as peri, feri, feri, Pairika, Pairika, Parik, Parika, Parik(a), pari, pari, pairika, pairika, pari(ka), pari(ka), Hindu Apsaras, Hindu Apsaras, Japanese Yosei, Japanese Yosei, patupaiarehe, New Zealand patupaiarehe, New Zealand patupaiarehe, Pahlavi parik or Pahlavi parik.

Peshdadiaus

A legendary dynasty. The exploits of these kings, said to have ruled some time before 600 BC, are described in the Shah Name. Occasionally referred to as Peshdadiaus.

Pinikirz

An Elamite mother-goddess. Identified as Pinikirz, Pinenkir, Pinenkir, Pinikir or Pinikir.

piris

A spirit. Sometimes known as piris, Arab jinnee, Arab jinnee or jnun.

Pisear

A king. His magic spear was said to have come down to Lugh. In some accounts, called Pisear.

Pitaona

A monster slain by Keresaspa. Also commonly identified as Pitaona.

Pourushaspa

A priest of the haoma in some accounts, father of Zoroaster. Sometimes referred to as Pourushaspa.

Rakush

The horse of Rustem. He and his master were both killed when they fell into a pit filled with sharp-pointed spears. On occassion, called Rakush, Rakhsh, Rakhsh, Ruk(u)sh or Ruk(u)sh.

Rama

read more »

Rapithwin

read more »

Rashnu

read more »

Rustamids

Descendants of the hero Rustem. Referred to as Rustamids.

Rustem

read more »

sacred thread

read more »

Sadda

A Zoroastrian sacred book. Occasionally referred to as Sadda.

Saena

read more »

Sahlub

Son of Mulatib. He was sent by Azazil as an envoy to the rebellious jinn who killed him. At times, called Sahlub.

Salm

read more »

Sam

read more »

Saoshyant

read more »

Satavesa

A star-spirit created by Ahura Mazda. Ruler of the west. Occasionally identified as Satavesa.

Saura

A demon, 'misgovernment', opposing. Kshathra Varya. Also commonly called Saura, Sauru or Sauru.

Schacabac

In "The Arabian Nights", a beggar who was the subject of the cruel jest of Barmecide's feast. Also commonly called Schacabac, Shacabac or Shacabac.

Scheherazade

read more »

senmerv

A fabulous bird. This enemy of snakes was said to be part bird, part mammal. Also called senmerv, samurv, samurv, senmurv, senmurv, seymorg, seymorg, simurgh, simurgh, Saena Meregha, akra, samru, simorg, simurg, sinurgh, Arab anqa, roc, Russian sinam(ru), phoenix, saena or simarghu.

Seven Wise Masters

read more »

Shah Name

read more »

Shahrijah

read more »

Shazu

A river-god. Referred to as Shazu, Marduk, Marduk, Adad, Addu, Amarud, Amurru-Ramman, Assaluha, Avenger, Hegal, Marlah, Murduk, Qaru, Samas, Suhgurim, Zisi, Agaku, Agilma, Amaradu(k), Aranunna, Asai, As(s)alluha, Asar(i), Asaru(alim) Asaruludu, Bel(-Enlil) Bel-Marduk, Bel Matai, Epadum, Gibil, Gil(ma), (Gish) Qaru, Gugal, Iku, Irkingu, Lugal-Dimmer-An-Ki-A, Kinma, Marad, Namru, Namtillaku, Nari, Sandan, S(h)amas(h), Sin, Sirsir, Tuku, Tutu, Usire, Zah(gu)rim, Ziku, Ziukinna, Zulum, Assyrian Ashur, Greek Zeus, Hebrew Merodach, Sumerian Enlil, Tagtug or Shulpae.

Shelan Nara

A demon. Also known as Shelan Nara.

Siltim

A malevolent forest-demon. Called Siltim.

simarghu

read more »

simurgh

read more »

Siyamak

read more »

Siyawush

read more »

Snavidka

A sleet-demon. This being was killed by Keresaspa. Occasionally called Snavidka.

Sohrab

read more »

Spandaramet

A name for hell. In some lore, occasionally called Spandaramet.

Spenishta

read more »

Spenjaghyra

A demon killed by Vazishta. (lightning). In some accounts, called Spenjaghyra.

Spenta Mainya

read more »

Spityura

Brother of Yima. He was said to have killed his brother by sawing him in half. Also commonly referred to as Spityura.

Sraosha

read more »

Srishok

A celestial ox due to be sacrificed at the renovation following the end of the world. Sometimes referred to as Srishok.

Srosh

A messenger of the gods. It was his duty to tell the king when his time on earth was up. At times, called Srosh.

Srvara

A storm-demon. This being was slain by Keresaspa. Also referred to as Srvara.

Sudabe

A Yemeni princess. Wife of Kay Kaus. Mother of Siyawush. Occasionally identified as Sudabe, Sudabah or Sudabah.

Susinak

The god of Susa. Sometimes referred to as Susinak.

Tahmurath

read more »

Tamine

read more »

Tarnush

A jinnee. In some accounts, known as Tarnush.

Tashan

A creator-god. Sometimes referred to as Tashan.

Taurvi

A demon opposing Ameretat. Also known as Taurvi.

Tazh

read more »

Thraetona

read more »

Thrita Athwya

read more »

Tistrya

read more »

Tur

read more »

Tushnamatay

A goddess of meditation. Occasionally referred to as Tushnamatay.

Tuti-Nameh

The Persian version of Shukasaptati. Occasionally known as Tuti-Nameh.

Ur-Kuh

read more »

Urvakhshaya

A wise counsellor. Brother of Keresaspa. He was killed by the demon Hitaspa but Keresaspa avenged his brother's death by killing the demon. On occassion, known as Urvakhshaya.

urvan

The soul. In some lore, occasionally referred to as urvan.

Urvazishta

One of the 5 types of sacred fire. This type is the fire which exists in plants or is caused by friction. Identified as Urvazishta, Bahram fire, Bahram fire, sacred fire, Spenishta, Vazishta, Vohu Fryana or Berezisavanh.

Urvis

read more »

Uzava Tumaspana

A rain-spirit. In some accounts it was this spirit, rather than the hero Rustem, who overcame the demon Afrasiyab. Occasionally identified as Uzava Tumaspana.

Vahram

The Pahlavi version of Bahram. Also identified as Vahram.

Vaivoo

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. In some lore, occasionally known as Vaivoo.

Vanainti

A goddess of victory. In some accounts, known as Vanainti, Uparatat, Uparatat, Vanant, Vanant or Vanand.

Vanant

read more »

Var

A cave or enclosure built by Yima in which he and the selected species. Survived the Flood. Referred to as Var.

Varagna

An incarnation of Verethragna as a falcon or raven. On occassion, known as Varagna.

Vareghna

The god Verethragna in the form of a raven. In some references, referred to as Vareghna, Verethragna, Verethragna, Atar, Varhagn, Verethraghna, Vrthragna, Vrtragna, Vrt(h)ragna, Armenian Vahagn, Greek Heracles, Hindu Indra, Vritrahan, Bahram or Thraetona.

Varena

Heaven. This region is depicted as fourcornered and was the site of the battle between Azhi Dahak and Thraetona. On occassion, known as Varena.

Vareshava

A monster slain by Keresaspa. In some references, referred to as Vareshava.

Varoonon

A demon, one of the Austatikco-Pauligaur. On occassion, referred to as Varoonon.

Vata

read more »

Vayu

read more »

Vazishta

One of the 5 types of sacred fire. This type of fire is lightning. At times, referred to as Vazishta, Bahram fire, Bahram fire, sacred fire, Spenishta, Urvazishta, Vohu Fryana or Berezisavanh.

Vendidad

read more »

Verethragna

read more »

Viraf

read more »

Vishtaspa

read more »

Visperad

The second part of the Avesta: a liturgy in the Avesta. Also referred to as Visperad, Visparad, Visparad, Vispered or Vispered.

Vistauru

read more »

Vivahvant

A sun-god. Father of Jamahid or Yima and Yimeh. In some references, identified as Vivahvant, Vivanghvant, Vivanghvant, Hindu Vivasvat or Hindu Vivasvat.

Vohu Fryana

One of the 5 types of sacred fire. This type is the one that keeps warm the bodies of animals and humans. In some accounts, identified as Vohu Fryana, Bahram fire, Bahram fire, sacred fire, Spenishta, Urvazishta, Vazishta or Berezisavanh.

Vohu Manah

read more »

Vourokasha

read more »

Xrostrag

A Manichaean diety. He and Padvaxtag are a pair involved in the ritual of prayer and the answer to that prayer. Also identified as Xrostrag.

Yama

read more »

Yashts

Hymns in the Avesta: stories of the gods (yazatas): hymns to the angels and heroes. On occassion, known as Yashts, Yasts or Yasts.

Yasna

The third part of the Zend-Avesta. Occasionally identified as Yasna.

Yati

Sorcerers: male counterparts of the Pairika. Occasionally known as Yati.

Yazata

read more »

Yazdan

A Yazata as a benevolent spirit in modern belief. Occasionally called Yazdan, Yazata, Yazata, Yazad, Zyed, 'the wonderful one' or Yaxzata.

Yeshm

Jade or a drink made from it. Also known as Yeshm, Chinese Yü, Chinese Yü, Sootash, Turkish Sootash, Turkish Sootash, , , or Persian Yeshm.

Yima

read more »

Yimeh

Sister of Tamurath and Yima. Sometimes identified as Yimeh, Yimaha, Yimaha, Yimak, Yimak, Yimaka, Yimaka, Yimak(a), Yimak(a), Hindu Yami or Hindu Yami.

Yoishta

A legendary hero. He solved the ninety-nine riddles posed by Akhtya who, failing to answer Yoishta's three riddles, was killed. Also called Yoishta.

Yusuf ibn Wasif

read more »

Zahak

read more »

Zairicha

A demon opposing Hauravat. In some lore, occasionally identified as Zairicha.

Zal

read more »

Zam-Armatay

An earth-goddess. In some references, identified as Zam-Armatay.

Zamin

An earth-goddess. Known as Zamin.

Zaothra

Holy water used in Zoroastrian rites. In some references, known as Zaothra.

Zariadres

read more »

Zem

An earth-god. One of the Yazatas. In some references, referred to as Zem.

Zend

A commentary on the Avesta. In some lore, occasionally identified as Zend, Zand, Zand, Zend-Avesta or Zend-Avesta.

Zoroaster

read more »

Zurvan

read more »
Persian Mythology