Peredur

Welsh - A Knight of the Round Table. The Welsh version of Percival. The seventh son of Efrawg. Husband of Condwiramur. Father of Lohenergrain. He was raised in seclusion by his mother who feared that he would be killed in fighting, just as his father and six brothers had been. Imbued with the spirit of adventure, he went to Caerleon armed only with a pointed stick. On arrival, he was greeted by a dwarf and his wife, neither of whom had ever spoken before in the court and they were ill-treated by Kay as a result. In some stories, a maiden who had never smiled takes the place of the dwarfs who had never spoken. He killed a stranger knight who had assaulted Guinevere by throwing his pointed stick through his eye and took the knight's horse, weapons and armour, vowing never to return to the court until he had avenged the insult to the dwarfs. At the Castle of Wonders his uncle showed him the severed head of his cousin and the spear with which he had been killed, so inciting Peredur to avenge his cousin's death. He fell in love with a maiden whose lands had been taken by a neighbouring earl and, by defeating the earl's forces, restored the property to its rightful owner. He spent three weeks at the witches' court learning more about the arts of horsemanship and weaponry. In another version, the uncle was King PÍcheur and the spear was the Holy Lance which he saw, together with the Holy Grail. Later, King PÍcheur took these holy relics to 'a far country'. King Arthur went searching for this young knight and when he found him, Peredur defeated many of Arthur's best knights in single combat, including Kay whose arm and shoulder were broken. He returned to Caerleon with Arthur and met Angharad Golden-hand and fell in love with her but went off to resume his adventures vowing not to speak until she came to love him. All the many men he overthrew on his journeying he forced to go to Arthur's court to submit to the king's will. He fought with a lion and a serpent and took the golden ring on which the serpent slept. At this stage of his career he was known as the Dumb Knight but on his return to Caerleon, Angharad Golden-hand declared her love and he was able to speak again. In another adventure he met and killed the Black Oppressor, a one-eyed black man who told him how to find the Black Worm of the Barrow and then the Addanc of the Lake. He then defeated 200 of the knights protecting the Black Worm of the Barrow and killed the serpent. He used the stone held in the serpent's tail to make gold with which he paid the remaining 100 knights and then gave the stone to his attendant, Edlym. The Addanc of the Lake killed the three sons of the King of Suffering every day and every evening their wives restored them to life by bathing them. On the way to the lake Peredur met a maiden who gave him a stone that would protect him from the evil Addanc. He killed the Addanc and cut off its head which he gave to the three princes. At the court of the Countess of Achievements he defeated each of her 300 knights and won the hand of the Countess for Edlym. The maiden who had given him the magic stone which protected him in his encounter with the Addanc turned out to be the Empress of Constantinople or, in some accounts, Cristonabyl the Great, and, at a great tournament in her honour, Peredur, known as the Knight of the Mill as a result of lodging with a local miller, defeated all the knights and stayed with her for fourteen years. On his return to Caerleon, an ugly black maiden cursed him for not seeking the explanation of the bloody spear and the severed head which his uncle had shown him years before, so he set off to find the Castle of Wonders once again. En route, he was imprisoned by a king but released when he helped him defeat the forces of an attacking earl and he killed another black man at the castle of Ysbidinongyl. At the castle he was required to kill the one-horned stag that was killing all the animals in the area and to joust three times with a black man and then he encountered his uncle and the slain cousin who, unknown to Peredur, had appeared in many of his adventures in various guises including that of the ugly black girl. It appeared that he had been killed by the witches of Caer Llyw. Peredur sought out the witches and, with the help of Arthur's war-band, killed all of them. In the parallel story of Percival, the witches are the Hags of Gloucester. He is said to have fought with Gwrgi against their cousin Gwenddolau at the Battle of Arthuret. In some accounts he married Condwiramur by whom he had a son, Lohenergrain. Also commonly known as Peredur, Dumb Knight, The, Dumb Knight, The, Knight of the Mill, Knight of the Mill, Longspear, Longspear, Percival de Gales, Percival de Gales, Parsifal, Parzival, Perceval, Perse(val), Dutch Perchevael, Welsh Peredur, Dodinel, Young Mute, The, Young Mute, The, The Dumb Knight, The Dumb Knight, The Young Mute, The Young Mute, Percival, Percival, Parsifal, Parsival, Parzival, Perse or Perseval.

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