European - One of the paladins, Roland's. Comrade-in-arms. Son of Regnier. Brother of Aude. Father of Aquilant and Griffon. When Charlemagne fell into dispute with Montglave, Oliver fought Roland in single combat to settle the matter. After five days, neither had gained the upper hand so they declared an honourable draw when they finally recognised each other. While searching for the mad Roland he was challenged by Rodomont at the bridge leading to a chapel and was taken prisoner. He was released when the warrior-maid Bradamante defeated Rodomont. He joined the Abyssinian forces under Astolpho at the siege of Biserta and was chosen with Roland and Florismart to do battle with Agramant, Sobrino and Grassado to settle the war between them. Only Oliver, Sobrino and Roland survived the encounter in which both Oliver and Sobrino were badly wounded. He was healed by the hermit who had converted Rogero to the Christian faith and, after the end of the war, went with Roland to collect the tribute exacted by Charlemagne from the Spanish king, Marsilius. In the battle of Roncesvalles which resulted, he killed Malprimo but was himself wounded. He was later stabbed in the back and died of his wounds. In another story, Oliver was captured by Balan, the Saracen ruler of Spain whose son, Fierabras, he had defeated in single combat and converted to the Christian faith. He was later rescued by Charlemagne's men and Balan was killed when he refused to convert. At times, referred to as Oliver, Olivier or Olivier.

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