Jain Lore, Gods, Demigods, Heroes, Symbols, and Other Famous Mythological Characters

abhiyoga

Minor gods. Also identified as abhiyoga.

Acchupta

A goddess of knowledge and learning. One of 16 vidyadevi. Sometimes called Acchupta.

Agnikumara

A young storm-god. One of the ten Bhavanavasi. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Agnikumara.

Amba

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Ambara

Gods of the underworld who torture the wicked dead by cutting the flesh from their bones. Referred to as Ambara.

Asipala

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead, slashing them with knives. Also referred to as Asipala.

Asurakumara

A weather-god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. Sometimes identified as Asurakumara.

Asvasena

Son of Mahipala. Father of Parsva(natha). Also referred to as Asvasena.

Bala

One of 24 messenger-goddesses. Occasionally known as Bala.

Baladeva

A name for Balarama in Jainism. In some references, called Baladeva.

Bhadrajina

The last of the tirthankaras. Also identified as Bhadrajina.

Bharata

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Bhavanavasi

10 young-looking deities. These are listed as Agnikumara, Asurakumara, Dikkumara, Dvipakumara, Nagakumara, Stanitakumara, Suparnakumara, Udadhikumara, Vayukumara and Vidyutkumara. At times, referred to as Bhavanavasi.

Buddhi

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Cakresvari

A goddess of learning, a messenger-goddess. One of 12 vidyadevi. One of 24 Sasanadevatas. Also called Cakresvari.

Chandraprabha

The eighth tirthankara. He is depicted with five faces representing the phases of the moon. Occasionally known as Chandraprabha, Lord of the Moon, Lord of the Moon, Shiva or Somanatha.

Cosmic Giant

A supernatural being. Occasionally referred to as Cosmic Giant.

devaloka

Part of Kalpa, the uppermost region of the universe. Kalpa is divided into sixteen separate devalokas or heavens. Sometimes called devaloka, Svarga, Svarga, Indra-Loka, Nandana, Suarga, Svar-Loka, Svarga-Loka, svark, Swarga, Trayastrimsa, Devaloka, Jarog, Rarach, Rarog, Svar(ga)-Loka or Buddhist Trayastrimsa.

Devananda

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Dhanu

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Dhrti

A minor goddess. Also known as Dhrti.

Dhundia

A sect that rejects image-worship. Called Dhundia.

digambara

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Dikkumara

A rain god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Dikkumara.

Dupasahasuri

A man predicted to be the last monk. Occasionally identified as Dupasahasuri.

Dusama

The present age, a period of misery. Also known as Dusama.

Dvipakumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. In some lore, occasionally called Dvipakumara.

Ganadhara

A leading disciple. On occassion, referred to as Ganadhara.

Gandhari

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Gauri

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Gommateshvara

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Haringamesi

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Isatpragbhara

A paradise for perfect souls. This realm is said to have the shape of an umbrella and lies just below Sila. Occasionally called Isatpragbhara.

Kaivalya

A state of perfect isolation. When a devout Jain dies, his soul (jiva) attains this state and exists for ever. In some references, called Kaivalya.

Kali

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Kalpa

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Kalpathitha

One of the upper realms of the universe. This region is made up of fourteen separate dwellings for the deities. Occasionally identified as Kalpathitha.

Kalpavrksha

The trees that provided all human. Needs in the early ages. Also referred to as Kalpavrksha, Kalpavriksha, Kalpavriksha, 'wishing trees' or 'wishing trees'.

kayotsarga

Dismissal of physical concerns in favour of those of the spirit. Also called kayotsarga.

Kevalin

A sage. On occassion, identified as Kevalin.

Kharasvara

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead by forcing their bodies into thornbushes. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Kharasvara.

Kulakaras

The early givers of law. In some lore, occasionally called Kulakaras, Nabhi or Nabhi.

Kulisankusa

A goddess of learning. One of the 16 vidyadevi. Occasionally referred to as Kulisankusa.

Kumbha

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Kusmandi

An earth-goddess. She was said to have appeared in 983 to indicate the spot where a huge statue of Gommateshvara was buried. Known as Kusmandi.

Mahakala

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Mahakali

A goddess of learning. One of the 16 vidyadevis. Occasionally identified as Mahakali, Kali, Kali, Black One, The, Kamakhya, Ambi(ka), Ankalamman, Anna-Purna, Bhadrakali, Bhagavati, Bhavani, Bhimadevi, Bhramari, Bhuta-Nayaki Black One, Devi, Dewi, Digambara, Durga, Gana-Nayaki, Gauri, Girija, Ishani, Kali Ma, Kamaks(h)i, Kanyakumari, Kapalini, Karala, Karali, Kotari, Karna-Moti, Katyayani, Kirati, Kumari, Mahadevi, Mahes(h)vari, Mahisha-Mardini, Parvati, Pinga, Pitari, Raktadanti, Rudrani, Sati, Shakti, Simha-Vahini, The Black One, Uma, Vijaya, Javanese Ambu Dewi, Lara Jonggrang, Ratu Lara Kidul, Pacific Batari or Canda.

Mahamanasika

A goddess of learning. One of the 16 vidyadevis. Occasionally referred to as Mahamanasika.

Mahatuma

The lowest of the 7 hells. In some lore, occasionally known as Mahatuma.

Mahavira

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Mahipala

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mahorga

One of the many varieties of demon in Patala. In some accounts, identified as mahorga.

Makkhali Gosala

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Malli

The only female jina. Also called Malli.

Manasi

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. Also known as Manasi.

Manavi

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. On occassion, referred to as Manavi.

Meghamalin

A monster attacking the twenty-third. Tirthankara, Parshva. Called Meghamalin.

Nabhi

A culture-hero. Referred to as Nabhi, Kulakaras or Kulakaras.

Nagakumara

A weather-god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. Occasionally referred to as Nagakumara.

Nagini

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Naradatta

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. At times, called Naradatta.

Neminatha

The twenty-second tirthankara. Known as Neminatha.

Ommatesvara

Son of Gommatesvara. Occasionally identified as Ommatesvara.

Parshva

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Prajnapati

A goddess of wisdom. One of the vidyadevis. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Prajnapati.

Pratisvasudeva

An evil spirit. Several of these beings, opposing Baladeva and Vasudeva, are said to appear in each earthly period. Identified as Pratisvasudeva.

Rishabha

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Rishabhadatta

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Riyadarshana

Daughter of Mahavira and Yasoda. Occasionally known as Riyadarshana.

Rohini

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Rsabhanatha

A god. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Rsabhanatha, Hindu Rsabha or Hindu Rsabha.

Rudra

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Sabala

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Sama

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead, beating them with sticks. On occassion, identified as Sama, Sam, Sam or Sama.

sannyasa

A vow renouncing the world. In some references, called sannyasa.

Sasanadevata

One of the messenger goddesses. In some references, referred to as Sasanadevata.

Shalakapurusha

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Siddhartha

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Sila

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Sravan Belgola

A sacred rock. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Sravan Belgola, Sravana Belgola or Sravana Belgola.

Sri

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Stanitakumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhanavasi. On occassion, known as Stanitakumara.

Suparnakumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhvanavasi. Identified as Suparnakumara.

Suparshva

The seventh Tirthankara. Referred to as Suparshva.

Susama Susama

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Sutra

Scripture, especially the life of Mahavira. Known as Sutra.

Svetambaras

A Jain sect. Also commonly known as Svetambaras.

tirthankara

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Tripura

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Trishala

Wife of Siddhartha. Mother of Mahavira. Mahavira, while still an embryo, was transferred to Trishala from the womb of Devananda. In some accounts, called Trishala, Trisala or Trisala.

Udadhikumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhanavasi. Also commonly called Udadhikumara.

vaimana

The flying palace of the gods. Also commonly referred to as vaimana.

Vaimanika

The gods inhabiting the vaimana, the flying palace of the gods. Sometimes called Vaimanika.

Vairotya

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. Also identified as Vairotya.

Vajrasrnkhala

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. Referred to as Vajrasrnkhala, Amoghasiddhi, Amoghasiddhi, Dhanada, Kamaheruka, Kharmaheruka, Mahamayuri, Mahasritara, Sitatara, Vasya-tara, Vishvapani, Hindu Indra, Japanese Fuku-joju, Shaka, Tibetan Don-yod-grub-pa or Donyo-dup-pa.

Valu

Gods of the underworld. These beings, who live in Valuka, torture the wicked dead by burying them in hot sand. Also known as Valu.

Valuka

One of the 7 hells, home of the Valu. Identified as Valuka.

Vasudeva

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Vayukumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. Also identified as Vayukumara.

Vetarani

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead by hurling them against rocks. Some say Vetarani is a realm of hell. Also referred to as Vetarani.

Vidyadevi

A group of 16 goddesses of knowledge. In some references, identified as Vidyadevi.

Vidyutkumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. In some references, identified as Vidyutkumara.

vyantara

One of the demons living in Patala. A more terrible version of this demon is known as vana-vyantara. Occasionally identified as vyantara, vana-vyantara or vana-vyantara.

Yasoda

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Jain Mythology