Jain Lore, Gods, Demigods, Heroes, Symbols, and Other Famous Mythological Characters

abhiyoga

Minor gods. Also commonly referred to as abhiyoga.

Acchupta

A goddess of knowledge and learning. One of 16 vidyadevi. Also known as Acchupta.

Agnikumara

A young storm-god. One of the ten Bhavanavasi. Occasionally identified as Agnikumara.

Amba

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Ambara

Gods of the underworld who torture the wicked dead by cutting the flesh from their bones. At times, called Ambara.

Asipala

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead, slashing them with knives. Sometimes referred to as Asipala.

Asurakumara

A weather-god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. Occasionally called Asurakumara.

Asvasena

Son of Mahipala. Father of Parsva(natha). Also commonly identified as Asvasena.

Bala

One of 24 messenger-goddesses. In some lore, occasionally called Bala.

Baladeva

A name for Balarama in Jainism. In some references, known as Baladeva.

Bhadrajina

The last of the tirthankaras. Sometimes known as Bhadrajina.

Bharata

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Bhavanavasi

10 young-looking deities. These are listed as Agnikumara, Asurakumara, Dikkumara, Dvipakumara, Nagakumara, Stanitakumara, Suparnakumara, Udadhikumara, Vayukumara and Vidyutkumara. At times, identified as Bhavanavasi.

Buddhi

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Cakresvari

A goddess of learning, a messenger-goddess. One of 12 vidyadevi. One of 24 Sasanadevatas. Known as Cakresvari.

Chandraprabha

The eighth tirthankara. He is depicted with five faces representing the phases of the moon. In some lore, occasionally called Chandraprabha, Lord of the Moon, Lord of the Moon, Shiva or Somanatha.

Cosmic Giant

A supernatural being. Also known as Cosmic Giant.

devaloka

Part of Kalpa, the uppermost region of the universe. Kalpa is divided into sixteen separate devalokas or heavens. In some accounts, referred to as devaloka, Svarga, Svarga, Indra-Loka, Nandana, Suarga, Svar-Loka, Svarga-Loka, svark, Swarga, Trayastrimsa, Devaloka, Jarog, Rarach, Rarog, Svar(ga)-Loka or Buddhist Trayastrimsa.

Devananda

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Dhanu

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Dhrti

A minor goddess. Also referred to as Dhrti.

Dhundia

A sect that rejects image-worship. Also called Dhundia.

digambara

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Dikkumara

A rain god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. On occassion, identified as Dikkumara.

Dupasahasuri

A man predicted to be the last monk. Also called Dupasahasuri.

Dusama

The present age, a period of misery. Called Dusama.

Dvipakumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. Occasionally known as Dvipakumara.

Ganadhara

A leading disciple. On occassion, identified as Ganadhara.

Gandhari

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Gauri

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Gommateshvara

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Haringamesi

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Isatpragbhara

A paradise for perfect souls. This realm is said to have the shape of an umbrella and lies just below Sila. Sometimes known as Isatpragbhara.

Kaivalya

A state of perfect isolation. When a devout Jain dies, his soul (jiva) attains this state and exists for ever. Sometimes called Kaivalya.

Kali

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Kalpa

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Kalpathitha

One of the upper realms of the universe. This region is made up of fourteen separate dwellings for the deities. Sometimes known as Kalpathitha.

Kalpavrksha

The trees that provided all human. Needs in the early ages. In some lore, occasionally identified as Kalpavrksha, Kalpavriksha, Kalpavriksha, 'wishing trees' or 'wishing trees'.

kayotsarga

Dismissal of physical concerns in favour of those of the spirit. At times, identified as kayotsarga.

Kevalin

A sage. Occasionally known as Kevalin.

Kharasvara

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead by forcing their bodies into thornbushes. Also commonly known as Kharasvara.

Kulakaras

The early givers of law. Also referred to as Kulakaras, Nabhi or Nabhi.

Kulisankusa

A goddess of learning. One of the 16 vidyadevi. Occasionally called Kulisankusa.

Kumbha

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Kusmandi

An earth-goddess. She was said to have appeared in 983 to indicate the spot where a huge statue of Gommateshvara was buried. Also identified as Kusmandi.

Mahakala

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Mahakali

A goddess of learning. One of the 16 vidyadevis. At times, identified as Mahakali, Kali, Kali, Black One, The, Kamakhya, Ambi(ka), Ankalamman, Anna-Purna, Bhadrakali, Bhagavati, Bhavani, Bhimadevi, Bhramari, Bhuta-Nayaki Black One, Devi, Dewi, Digambara, Durga, Gana-Nayaki, Gauri, Girija, Ishani, Kali Ma, Kamaks(h)i, Kanyakumari, Kapalini, Karala, Karali, Kotari, Karna-Moti, Katyayani, Kirati, Kumari, Mahadevi, Mahes(h)vari, Mahisha-Mardini, Parvati, Pinga, Pitari, Raktadanti, Rudrani, Sati, Shakti, Simha-Vahini, The Black One, Uma, Vijaya, Javanese Ambu Dewi, Lara Jonggrang, Ratu Lara Kidul, Pacific Batari or Canda.

Mahamanasika

A goddess of learning. One of the 16 vidyadevis. Occasionally known as Mahamanasika.

Mahatuma

The lowest of the 7 hells. Sometimes known as Mahatuma.

Mahavira

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Mahipala

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mahorga

One of the many varieties of demon in Patala. Also identified as mahorga.

Makkhali Gosala

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Malli

The only female jina. Also identified as Malli.

Manasi

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. In some accounts, known as Manasi.

Manavi

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. Occasionally referred to as Manavi.

Meghamalin

A monster attacking the twenty-third. Tirthankara, Parshva. In some accounts, identified as Meghamalin.

Nabhi

A culture-hero. In some accounts, identified as Nabhi, Kulakaras or Kulakaras.

Nagakumara

A weather-god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. In some accounts, known as Nagakumara.

Nagini

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Naradatta

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. In some accounts, called Naradatta.

Neminatha

The twenty-second tirthankara. Also referred to as Neminatha.

Ommatesvara

Son of Gommatesvara. In some lore, occasionally called Ommatesvara.

Parshva

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Prajnapati

A goddess of wisdom. One of the vidyadevis. Also known as Prajnapati.

Pratisvasudeva

An evil spirit. Several of these beings, opposing Baladeva and Vasudeva, are said to appear in each earthly period. On occassion, called Pratisvasudeva.

Rishabha

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Rishabhadatta

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Riyadarshana

Daughter of Mahavira and Yasoda. Sometimes called Riyadarshana.

Rohini

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Rsabhanatha

A god. Also identified as Rsabhanatha, Hindu Rsabha or Hindu Rsabha.

Rudra

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Sabala

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Sama

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead, beating them with sticks. Also known as Sama, Sam, Sam or Sama.

sannyasa

A vow renouncing the world. Occasionally referred to as sannyasa.

Sasanadevata

One of the messenger goddesses. Occasionally known as Sasanadevata.

Shalakapurusha

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Siddhartha

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Sila

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Sravan Belgola

A sacred rock. Also called Sravan Belgola, Sravana Belgola or Sravana Belgola.

Sri

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Stanitakumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhanavasi. Also known as Stanitakumara.

Suparnakumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhvanavasi. Sometimes identified as Suparnakumara.

Suparshva

The seventh Tirthankara. Occasionally referred to as Suparshva.

Susama Susama

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Sutra

Scripture, especially the life of Mahavira. On occassion, called Sutra.

Svetambaras

A Jain sect. On occassion, known as Svetambaras.

tirthankara

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Tripura

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Trishala

Wife of Siddhartha. Mother of Mahavira. Mahavira, while still an embryo, was transferred to Trishala from the womb of Devananda. At times, identified as Trishala, Trisala or Trisala.

Udadhikumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhanavasi. At times, known as Udadhikumara.

vaimana

The flying palace of the gods. Sometimes identified as vaimana.

Vaimanika

The gods inhabiting the vaimana, the flying palace of the gods. Also referred to as Vaimanika.

Vairotya

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. Called Vairotya.

Vajrasrnkhala

A goddess of learning. One of the vidyadevis. Sometimes called Vajrasrnkhala, Amoghasiddhi, Amoghasiddhi, Dhanada, Kamaheruka, Kharmaheruka, Mahamayuri, Mahasritara, Sitatara, Vasya-tara, Vishvapani, Hindu Indra, Japanese Fuku-joju, Shaka, Tibetan Don-yod-grub-pa or Donyo-dup-pa.

Valu

Gods of the underworld. These beings, who live in Valuka, torture the wicked dead by burying them in hot sand. Sometimes called Valu.

Valuka

One of the 7 hells, home of the Valu. In some accounts, identified as Valuka.

Vasudeva

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Vayukumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. At times, called Vayukumara.

Vetarani

Gods of the underworld. These beings torture the wicked dead by hurling them against rocks. Some say Vetarani is a realm of hell. Sometimes identified as Vetarani.

Vidyadevi

A group of 16 goddesses of knowledge. Occasionally called Vidyadevi.

Vidyutkumara

A minor god. One of the 10 Bhavanavasi. Sometimes identified as Vidyutkumara.

vyantara

One of the demons living in Patala. A more terrible version of this demon is known as vana-vyantara. Sometimes identified as vyantara, vana-vyantara or vana-vyantara.

Yasoda

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Jain Mythology