Baltic Lore, Gods, Demigods, Heroes, Symbols, and Other Famous Mythological Characters

accidental god

The first object seen by a Lapp when he emerges from his tent in the morning is worshipped as a god. Occasionally called accidental god.

Agras

A god of twins in Finland; a turnip-god. Called Agras.

Ahti

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Ai

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Ainikki

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Aino

A Finnish heroine. Sister of Joukahainen. She was wooed by Vainamoinen but jumped into the sea rather than marry him. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Aino.

Aitvaras

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Ajata

A malevolent female wood spirit in Finland. These beings are said to suckle snakes and to cause illness. In some accounts, known as Ajata, Ajatar, Ajatar, Ajattara, Ajattara, Estonian Ai, Estonian Ai, Aitvaras, Lithuanian Aitvara or Lithuanian Aitvara.

Akkruva

A fish-goddess in Finland. In some lore, occasionally called Akkruva, Avfruvva, Avfruvva, Havfru, Havfru, Danish Havfrue or Danish Havfrue.

Alka

Sacred lands dedicated to the gods, in Lithuanian lore. On occassion, known as Alka, Alklha, Alklha, Alka or Arakho.

Altvaras

A flying snake. Occasionally called Altvaras.

Antero Vipunen

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Apparas

Lapp forest spirits. These beings are said to be the souls of children who have been killed. They control the grass and the trees. Known as Apparas.

Arcturus

In Finnish lore, a celestial archer. It is said that the world will come to an end when he shoots down the star Bcahje-naste. Also commonly called Arcturus.

Asz

A Lithuanian sky-god. Also commonly known as Asz.

Aurora Borealis

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Ausera

A Lithuanian goddess of the dawn. At times, called Ausera.

Auskelis

A Latvian fertility-god, attendant on the sky-god. In some lore, occasionally called Auskelis, Auseklis, Auseklis, Lithuanian Ausrine or Lithuanian Ausrine.

Ausrine

A Lithuanian fertility-god. In some accounts, Ausrine was the Morning Star with whom the moon god Meness had an affair. Occasionally identified as Ausrine, Latvian Auskelis or Latvian Auskelis.

Bagputys

A Lithuanian sea-god. Occasionally identified as Bagputys, Bangputis or Bangputis.

Barbmo-akka

In Lapp lore, an old woman who causes. The birds to return in the spring. Known as Barbmo-akka, Loddis-edne, Loddis-edne or Barbmo-ekka.

Bardha

In Albania, whitish spirits who live under the earth. On occassion, known as Bardha.

barstukai

Lithuanian spirits of the underworld who helped with the harvest. Identified as barstukai, parstukai, parstukai, partstukai or partstukai.

Biega-olmai

A Lapp wind-god. In some lore, occasionally identified as Biega-olmai.

Bird's Way

In Lithuanian lore, the Milky Way, along which the dead are said to travel to Dausos. In some lore, occasionally identified as Bird's Way.

Boahje-naste

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Bohinavlle

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burtnicks

A Latvian magician. This type uses his magic for benevolent ends, as opposed to the evil burvis. Sometimes identified as burtnicks.

burvis

A Latvian magician. This type uses his powers for evil purposes. Also referred to as burvis.

Busi-urt

The Finnish spirit of the cornfields. Occasionally known as Busi-urt, Rice Mother or Rice Mother.

Cacce-haldde

A Lappish water spirit. Occasionally known as Cacce-haldde, Cacce-jielle, Cacce-jielle, Kul, Cacce-olmai, Cacce-olmai, Finnish Vedenhaltija or Finnish Vedenhaltija.

Cacce-olmai

A Lapp water spirit: god of fishing. Sometimes identified as Cacce-olmai, Cacce-haldde, Cacce-haldde, Cacce-jielle, Kul or Finnish Vedenhaltija.

Carmilhan

A phantom ship. The legend surrounding this mysterious vessel is similar to the story of The Flying Dutchman. In some lore, occasionally known as Carmilhan, Klaboterman or Klaboterman.

Cold

Son of Louhi, in Finnish lore. Also commonly known as Cold.

Daugawa

The great water that flows back full of departed souls every evening. In some lore, occasionally called Daugawa.

Daughter of Creation

A name for the Finnish goddess Ilmatar as 'Luonnotar'. Called Daughter of Creation, Luonnotar, Luonnotar, Ilmatar, Luojatar or Synnytar.

Dausos

The Lithuanian kingdom of the dead. It was said to be situated in the sky behind a very tall and slippery hill. Also commonly known as Dausos.

Debestevs

A Latvian sky god and fertility god. Sometimes called Debestevs, Lettish Dievs, Lettish Dievs, Dievas, Lithuanian Dievas, Lithuanian Dievas or Dievs.

Dekla

The Latvian goddess of fate. Sister of Karta and Laima. In some accounts these three sisters act as the Latvian Fates. Also referred to as Dekla.

deyves

Stones as objects of veneration in Lithuania. In some accounts, referred to as deyves.

Dieva deli

The 2 (or 3, some say) sons of Dieva who mow the celestial meadows. In some references, identified as Dieva deli.

Dievas

A Lithuanian sky god and fertility god. Identified as Dievas, Latvian Debestevs, Latvian Debestevs, Dievs, Lettish Dievs, Lettish Dievs or Debestevs.

Dievini

Minor gods in Latvia, guardians of property. Occasionally known as Dievini.

Dievs

A Lettish sky god and fertility god. Consort of Saule. On occassion, known as Dievs, Latvian Debestevs, Latvian Debestevs, Dievas, Lithuanian Dievas, Lithuanian Dievas or Debestevs.

Dogheads

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Drebkuls

A Lettish sea god. On occassion, referred to as Drebkuls, Greek Poseidon, Greek Poseidon, Neptune or Varuna.

Egres

A Finnish fertility-god, protector of turnips. Sometimes referred to as Egres, Akras or Akras.

Ezerinis

A Finnish lake-god. In some accounts, identified as Ezerinis.

Gabija

A Lithuanian fire-goddess. Identified as Gabija, Gabeta, Gabeta, Gabieta or Gabieta.

Gabjauja

A Lithuanian corn-goddess. Occasionally called Gabjauja.

Gabjaujis

A Lithuanian fire-god. Sometimes called Gabjaujis.

Ganis

A Lappish forest-spirit. This being takes the form of a beautiful maiden with a long tail who mates with mortals. Occasionally called Ganis, Gidne, Gidne, Kani, Kani, Kine or Kine.

Ganyklos

A Lithuanian god of domestic animals. In some lore, occasionally identified as Ganyklos, Czech Veles, Czech Veles, Volos, Russian Vlas(sy), Russian Vlas(sy), Veles, Slav Volos, Slav Volos or Vlas.

Gerovit

A war-god in Pomerania. Called Gerovit, Gerovitus, Gerovitus, Herovit, Herovit, Jarovit or Jarovit.

Gid-kuzo

A Finnish god of the cattle-yard. Also referred to as Gid-kuzo.

Giltine

A Lithuanian goddess of death. Sometimes identified as Giltine.

Giraitis

A Lithuanian god of woodlands. Son of Severin and Alice. Also commonly called Giraitis.

Guffitar

Lappish dwarf spirits of the forest or living underground. On occassion, called Guffitar, Norse Govetter or Norse Govetter.

haldde

A Lappish nature spirit. Also called haldde.

Hidden-Kissa

A cat owned by the giant, Hiisi. This cat could so frighten criminals that they confessed their misdeeds. In some references, identified as Hidden-Kissa.

Hiisi

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Iarovit

A Latvian god. An aspect of Svantevit. In some lore, occasionally known as Iarovit, Svantevit, Svantevit, Svandovit, Svantovit, Svarog, Sventovit, Svetovid, Svetovit, Svetovitu, 'energy', Swietowit, Triglav, Slav Porenutius, Rod or Rugievit.

Ilmarine

An Estonian god based on the Finnish Ilmarinen. Called Ilmarine.

Ilmarinen

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Ilmatar

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iodhi

Souls of the dead: spirits of the air. In some accounts, identified as iodhi, murgi or murgi.

Isa

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Jabme-aibmo

Also identified as Jabme-aibmo, Jabme-aimo or Jabme-aimo.

Jabme-aimo

The Lappish underworld, ruled by Jabme-akkao. At times, known as Jabme-aimo, Jabme-aibmo or Jabme-aibmo.

Jabme-akka

An old woman, ruler of the Lappish underworld, Jabme-aimo. Also referred to as Jabme-akka.

Jengk-Tongk

A Lapp water-spirit or fish-spirit. Also known as Jengk-Tongk, Kul-jungk, Kul-jungk, Kul-Jungk or Kul-Jungk.

Jumala

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Jumis

A Latvian fertility-god. Occasionally referred to as Jumis.

juoigen

A Lappish sacred chant. This magical incantation is used to call up the spirits of the dead in a form of language known only to initiates. Occasionally known as juoigen.

Jurasmate

A Latvian sea-goddess. Sometimes known as Jurasmate, Mother of the Sea or Mother of the Sea.

juudas

An Estonian devil. In some accounts, identified as juudas, Finnish juutas, Finnish juutas, velns, Latvian juods, Latvian juods or juutas.

juutas

A Finnish devil. At times, referred to as juutas, Estonian juudas, Estonian juudas, velns, Latvian juods, Latvian juods or juudas.

Kaba

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Kalervo

In Finnish lore, father of Kullervo. He was killed by his brother Untamo. Also called Kalervo.

Kaleva

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Kalevala

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Kalevanpojat

Evil giants who destroy the landscape. Sometimes called Kalevanpojat.

Kalevi

An Estonian hero. Father of Kalevipoeg. At times, called Kalevi, Finnish Kaleva or Finnish Kaleva.

Kalevipoeg

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Kalma

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Kalvaistis

A Lithuanian smith-god. He is said to make the sun anew each day. Also known as Kalvaistis, Greek Hephaestus, Greek Hephaestus, Ptah, Regin, Sethlans, Tvashtri, Vulcan, Roman Mulciber, Roman Mulciber or Hephaestus.

kanteletar

Finnish magic songs. In some references, referred to as kanteletar.

Kapu Mate

A name for Velumate as 'mother of the graveyard'. In some references, known as Kapu Mate.

Karta

A Latvian goddess of fate. Sister of Dekla and Laima. In some accounts, these three sisters act as the Latvian Fates. Referred to as Karta.

kaukas

A Lithuanian dwarf house-spirit, similar to the aitvaras. Occasionally known as kaukas, Para, Para, Bjara, Puk, Pukhis, Pukis, Pukys, Puuk, Estonian Pisuhand, Tulihand, Lappish Smieragatto, Latvian Pukis, Lithuanian Aitvaras, Kaukas, Scandinavian Buttercat, Russian Domovik, Russian Domovik, pukys, pukys, Aitvaras or Para.

Kekri

An ancient Finnish god of cattle. At times, known as Kekri.

kekri

A Finnish ghost or spirit. On occassion, known as kekri.

kekritar

Masks, or the people wearing them, in the Kekri festival. Sometimes called kekritar.

keremet

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Kildisin

Wife of the Finnish sky-god, Ilmarinen. In some accounts, identified as Kildisin, Kildisin-mumy, Kildisin-mumy, Kugu-shotshen-Ara or Kugo-shotshen-Ava.

Kiyamat-saus

An assistant of the Finnish underworld. God Tuoni. In some references, referred to as Kiyamat-saus.

klaboterman

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Kodinhaltia

A Finnish house-fairy. At times, known as Kodinhaltia.

Kodojeza

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Kondos

A Finnish god of agriculture. Called Kondos.

Kosla-kuguza

A guardian deity of the forests. Husband of Kosla-kuva. On occassion, referred to as Kosla-kuguza.

Kosla-kuva

Wife of Kosla-kuguza. On occassion, referred to as Kosla-kuva.

Kotre

A Lithuanian fertility-spirit. Occasionally called Kotre, More or More.

Kratti

A Finnish spirit, guardian of property. Occasionally known as Kratti.

Kreutzneald, F R

The Estonian compiler of the epic Kalevipoea, published 1857-61. In some lore, occasionally called Kreutzneald, F R.

Krohn, Julius

The Finnish author of works on folklore and mythology, especially on the Kalevala. In some accounts, identified as Krohn, Julius, (1835-1888) or (1835-1888).

Krohn, Kaarle

A Finnish scholar who wrote extensively on folklore and mythology. Also identified as Krohn, Kaarle, (1863-1933) or (1863-1933).

Kul

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Kun

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Kursis

A Lithuanian corn-spirit. Kursis represents the male equivalent of Rugiu-Baba. In some references, known as Kursis, Rugiu Boba or Rugiu Boba.

Laima

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Lammekune

An Estonian hero based on the Finnish Lemminkainen. Occasionally known as Lammekune.

Larkosargasa

A Lithuanian field-god. Also commonly referred to as Larkosargasa.

Laukpatis

A Lithuanian field-god. Also commonly known as Laukpatis, Lauksargis, Lauksargis, Latvian Laukumate, Latvian Laukumate, Polish Lawkapatim, Polish Lawkapatim or Laukumate.

Laukumate

A Latvian goddess of agriculture. Sometimes referred to as Laukumate, Lauka Mate, Lauka Mate, Lauka Mata, Lauka Mata, Mother of the Fields, Mother of the Fields, Lithuanian Laukpatis, Lithuanian Laukpatis, Lawkapatim, Polish Lawkapatim, Polish Lawkapatim or Laukpatis.

lauma

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laumé

A Lithuanian hag or witch. Originally these beings were harmless fairies, later they became evil beings. At times, called laumé, deive, deive, spigena, spigena, lauma, lauma, Latvian lauma or Latvian lauma.

Liekko

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lietuvens

A Latvian ghost, the spirit of one who died violently. Also commonly called lietuvens.

Ligo-feast

A Latvian festival in honour of the sun-god. In some lore, occasionally called Ligo-feast.

luete-muor

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Luonnotar

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Luot-chozjit

A Lappish female spirit, guardian of reindeer. Occasionally identified as Luot-chozjit, Luot-hozjit, Luot-hozjit, Luot-hozjik, Luot-hozjik, Russian Pots-hoznik or Russian Pots-hoznik.

Lytuvonis

A Lithuanian rain god. Occasionally called Lytuvonis.

Maa-Emae

A Finnish earth-mother. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Maa-Emae, Maan-Emo or Maan-Emo.

maahiset

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Mader Akka

A Lappish creator-goddess. Wife of Mader Atcha. Mother of Sarakka. On occassion, called Mader Akka, Madderakka or Madderakka.

Majas kungs

A Latvian god of the household. On occassion, known as Majas kungs, Lithuanian Zemepatis or Lithuanian Zemepatis.

Maksameri

The Estonian world of the dead. In some references, called Maksameri, German Lebermeer or German Lebermeer.

Mana

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Manala

The Finnish land of the dead, ruled. By Mana. Occasionally identified as Manala, Tuonela, Tuonela or Pohjola.

Manalan-Rakki

A hound from the Finnish underworld. Also commonly called Manalan-Rakki.

Mara

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mara-halddo

A Lappish sea-spirit. At times, identified as mara-halddo.

Marjatta

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maro-deives

Pest-deities. These beings are said to drive round in coaches drawn by six black horses. In some lore, occasionally identified as maro-deives.

Medeine

A Lithuanian goddess of woodlands. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Medeine, Majdejn, Majdejn, Mejdejn or Mejdejn.

Meness

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Menulis

A Lithuanian moon-god. At times, called Menulis, Menuo, Menuo, Latvian Meness or Latvian Meness.

metsaneitsyt

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metsanhaltia

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metshaldijas

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Metsmees

An Estonian wind-god. Also commonly called Metsmees.

Metsola

A Finnish goddess, mother of the first deity. On occassion, known as Metsola.

Mezasmate

A Latvian forest-goddess. Occasionally known as Mezasmate, Mother of the Forest or Mother of the Forest.

Mezatevs

A Latvian forest-god. In some references, referred to as Mezatevs, Father of the Forest or Father of the Forest.

Mielkki

A Finnish forest-spirit. Wife of Tapio. Mother of Nyyrikki and Tuulikki. Occasionally known as Mielkki, Mielikki or Mielikki.

milzinas

A Lithuanian giant-spirit. Occasionally called milzinas.

moomin

In Finnish lore, one of a race of imaginary forest-dwellers. These small, fat people are said to be very shy, hibernating during the winter. Occasionally referred to as moomin.

Muntso-murt

A Finnish bath-house spirit. He sometimes substitutes changlings for the proper children. In some references, called Muntso-murt, Motsaoza, Motsaoza, Muntso-kuzo, Muntso-kuzo, Muntso-oza, Muntso-oza, Muntso-oza Russian Pyrsan-aika or Muntso-oza Russian Pyrsan-aika.

Nakinieu

A female water-spirit in Estonia. They are said to own beautiful cattle which live in water. In some references, identified as Nakinieu, Nakinietsi, Nakinietsi, maleNakk or maleNakk.

Nakk

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Nakki

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nelaikis

A Lithuanian spirit. This dangerous spirit is that of a victim of murder, one who drowned or one who committed suicide. In some accounts, called nelaikis.

Noaide

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Olmai

A word for god among the Lapps. On occassion, referred to as Olmai, Olmay or Olmay.

Ovda

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Paiva

A Finnish sun-god. The rays of the sun formed roads between heaven and earth along which the gods could travel. In some references, called Paiva, Paeivae or Paeivae.

Pajainen

A Finnish god. He killed a huge bull or pig. In some references, identified as Pajainen.

pajanvak'i

Finnish spirits associated with metals. Sometimes identified as pajanvak'i.

Pajonn

A Lappish thunder-god. In some lore, occasionally identified as Pajonn.

Para

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Parne

A malevolent Finnish forest-spirit. Also referred to as Parne.

Passe-javrre

In Lappish lore, the sacred sea. Also identified as Passe-javrre.

Passe-jokka

In Lappish lore, the sacred river. In some accounts, known as Passe-jokka.

Passe-vare

In Lappish lore, the sacred. Mountains. At times, known as Passe-vare.

Patollus

A Prussian god of the underworld. In some references, referred to as Patollus, Patollo or Patollo.

Pekko

A Finnish corn-god. Also called Pekko, Pellonpekko, Pellonpekko, Estonian Peko or Estonian Peko.

Peko

An Estonian fertility-god. Occasionally identified as Peko, Finnish Pekko or Finnish Pekko.

Pele Kolese

A Finnish water-spirit. This being floated on its back as if drowning. Those who attempted rescue were attacked and killed. Occasionally called Pele Kolese.

Pergrubius

A deity of renewal. Also called Pergrubius.

Perkele

The Finnish name for the Devil. Also commonly identified as Perkele.

Perkons

A Latvian thunder-god. In some references, referred to as Perkons, Bohemina Peranu, Bohemina Peranu, Bulgarian Perusan, Bulgarian Perusan, Peranu, Perkonis, Perkunos, Peroon, Piker, Piorun, Pitkainen, Pyerun, Estonian Piker, Estonian Piker, Perkunos, Perusan, Finnish Pitkoinen, Finnish Pitkoinen, Lithuanian Perkunos, Lithuanian Perkunos, Pirgene, Polish Piorun, Polish Piorun, Perkunos, Prussian Perkonis, Prussian Perkonis, Perkunos, Russian Pirgene, Russian Pirgene, Perkunos, Slav Peroon, Slav Peroon, Gromovit or Perkunos.

Perkune Tete

A goddess of thunder and lightning. Identified as Perkune Tete.

Perkunos

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Piker

An Estonian thunder-god. Sometimes identified as Piker, Bohemian Peranu, Bohemian Peranu, Perkonis, Perkunos, Peroon, Perusan, Piorun, Pitkainen, Pyerun, Bulgarian Perusan, Bulgarian Perusan, Peranu, Perkons, Perkunos, Finnish Pitkainen, Finnish Pitkainen, Latvian Perkons, Latvian Perkons, Perkunos, Lithuanian Perkunos, Lithuanian Perkunos, Pirgene, Polish Piorun, Polish Piorun, Perkunos, Prussian Perkonis, Prussian Perkonis, Perkunos, Russian Pyerun, Russian Pyerun, Serbian Gromovit, Serbian Gromovit, Slav Peroon, Slav Peroon, Gromovit or Perkunos.

Pitkainen

A Finnish thunder-god. Occasionally known as Pitkainen, Pitkomoinen, Pitkomoinen, Bohemian Peranu, Bohemian Peranu, Perkonis, Perkunos, Peroon, Perusan, Piker, Piorun, Pyerun, Bulgarian Perusan, Bulgarian Perusan, Peranu, Perkons, Perkunos, Estonian Piker, Estonian Piker, Perkunos, Latvian Perkons, Latvian Perkons, Perkunos, Lithuanian Perkunos, Lithuanian Perkunos, Pirgene, Polish Piorun, Polish Piorun, Perkunos, Prussian Perkonis, Prussian Perkonis, Perkunos, Russian Pirgene, Russian Pirgene, Perkunos, Serbian Gromovit, Serbian Gromovit, Slav Peroon, Slav Peroon, Gromovit or Perkunos.

Pohjanakka

The ruler of the Finnish underworld, Pohjola. Consort of Louhi. At times, known as Pohjanakka.

Pohjola

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porgu

The Estonian hell. At times, identified as porgu.

Port-hozjin

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Potrympus

A god of rivers and vegetation. In some accounts, identified as Potrympus, Potrimpo or Potrimpo.

Pramzimas

A Latvian culture-hero. He threw into the waters of the flood a nutshell in which two people escaped. In some accounts, known as Pramzimas.

Pukis

A household spirit or dragon. The Latvian version of Para. Occasionally known as Pukis, Pukhis, Pukhis, Para, Para, Para, Bjara, Puk, Pukys, Puuk, Estonian Pisuhand, Tulihand, Lappish Smieragatto, Latvian Pukis, Lithuanian Aitvaras, Kaukas or Scandinavian Buttercat.

Pukys

A household spirit. The Lithuanian version of Para. Also commonly called Pukys, Aitvaras, Aitvaras, Estonian Ai, Finnish Ajata, pukys, kaukas, kaukas, Para, Russian Domovik, Para, Para, Bjara, Puk, Pukhis, Pukis, Puuk, Estonian Pisuhand, Tulihand, Lappish Smieragatto, Latvian Pukis, Lithuanian Aitvaras, Kaukas, Scandinavian Buttercat, Para or Para.

Pulah

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Puuk

A household spirit. The Estonian version of Para. At times, called Puuk, Para, Para, Bjara, Puk, Pukhis, Pukis, Pukys, Estonian Pisuhand, Tulihand, Lappish Smieragatto, Latvian Pukis, Lithuanian Aitvaras, Kaukas, Scandinavian Buttercat, Pisuhand, Pisuhand, Para or Para.

Radigast

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Radion-aimo

Heaven, home of the god of the Lapps. In some accounts, called Radion-aimo.

Rahkoi

A ghost in the lore of the Finns and Lapps, said to influence the moon. Also called Rahkoi.

Rahkonen

In Finland, the man in the moon. On occassion, called Rahkonen.

Rana-neidda

A Lapp virgin-goddess. In some accounts, referred to as Rana-neidda, Norse Frigga, Norse Frigga, Holda or Nerthus.

Raudna

A Lapp goddess. Wife of Horagalles. Also commonly known as Raudna.

Rauni

A Finnish storm-goddess. Wife of Ukko. Referred to as Rauni, Akka, Akka, 'old woman', 'old woman', Carlin, Sedna, 'rowan' or 'rowan'.

Ravdna

A Finnish thunder-goddess. Occasionally called Ravdna.

Ravgga

A Finnish fish-god. Also referred to as Ravgga, Meriraukka or Meriraukka.

Riihitonttu

A Finnish grain-spirit. This spirit will steal grain from neighbours in order to help the family it protects. Also identified as Riihitonttu, Swedish Ritomte or Swedish Ritomte.

Rugini

A Lithuanian corn-spirit. Occasionally identified as Rugini, 'man of rye' or 'man of rye'.

Rugiu Boba

A Lithuanian corn-spirit. A harvest symbol, a female figure of this spirit made from the last of the harvest. At times, called Rugiu Boba, Kursis or Kursis.

Rukotivo

A later name for Runkateivas as a horse-god. At times, called Rukotivo, Runkateivas, Runkateivas or Rongoteus.

Runkateivas

A Finnish god of rye. In some references, called Runkateivas, Rongoteus, Rongoteus, Runkateivis, Rukotivo or Rukotivo.

runo

A Finnish short song or poem on a legendary subject. Referred to as runo.

Ruotta

A Lapp evil spirit. This being is said to attack pregnant women. On occassion, known as Ruotta.

Rut-aimo

The Lapp hell. Occasionally known as Rut-aimo, Ruta-aimo or Ruta-aimo.

Rutja's Rapids

In the lore of the Lapps, the river of the dead. In some lore, occasionally identified as Rutja's Rapids, Turja's rapids, Turja's rapids or Rustja's Rapids.

Rutu

The Lapp devil, torturer of the dead in the hell, Rut-aimo. In some lore, occasionally known as Rutu, Rota, Rota or Rutu.

Saivo-neita

A Lapp water-spirit or sea-maiden. Also known as Saivo-neita, Saivo-neida, Saivo-neida, Russian Rusalka or Russian Rusalka.

Sampsa Pellervo

A Finnish god of vegetation. He is said to have arrived in a cornship. On occassion, called Sampsa Pellervo, Sampsa Pellervoinen or Sampsa Pellervoinen.

Sarakka

A Lapp goddess, guardian of birth. Daughter of Mader Akka. It was said that she assisted both deer and humans. Occasionally known as Sarakka, Sadsta-akka or Sadsta-akka.

Saule

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Saules meitas

Daughters of Saule. They rake up the hay mown by the Dievadeli in the celestial meadows. Occasionally identified as Saules meitas.

Seeva

A Lithuanian love-goddess. Also known as Seeva, Slav Siva or Slav Siva.

Siela

The life-force. This force is said not to leave with the soul of the departed but is reincarnated in animals and plants. In some lore, occasionally called Siela.

slogute

A Lithuanian spirit: a nightmare. Occasionally known as slogute.

Smieragatto

A Lappish spirit in the form of a cat. This spirit is said to bring its owner butter, cream and milk. Also referred to as Smieragatto, Finnish Para, Finnish Para, Buttercat, Swedish Buttercat or Swedish Buttercat.

Sueje-lodde

A Lapp which reveals the names of those about to die. This spirit is said to appear in the form of a bird. In some lore, occasionally identified as Sueje-lodde.

Sukkamielli

A Finnish goddess of orgiastic love. At times, identified as Sukkamielli.

Suksendal

A Finnish deity of nightmares. This being can act either as a succubus or as an incubus to have intercourse with sleeping mortals. Known as Suksendal.

suoje

A spirit invoked by a Lappish sorcerer. This spirit can be passed on to a descendant or marriage partner - even purchased. Identified as suoje, sueje or sueje.

Surma

A monster guarding the Finnish. Underworld, Tuohela. This beast was envisaged as an enormous pair of fanged jaws without a body. Sometimes known as Surma.

Svantevit

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Taara

An Estonian sky-god, in some accounts. Sometimes called Taara, Tharapita or Tharapita.

Tachti

A Finnish god of the Pole Star. Sometimes referred to as Tachti.

Tapio

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Teljavelik

A Lithuanian creator-god and smith-god. In some lore, occasionally known as Teljavelik, Telyaveli, Telyaveli, Telyavelik, Telyavelik, Telyaveli(k) or Telyaveli(k).

Tiermes

A Lapp thunder-god. In some lore, occasionally known as Tiermes.

Tomor

An Albanian creator-god and wind-god. In some references, called Tomor, Tomorr, Tomorr, Baba,Tomorr or Baba,Tomorr.

Tonttu

A benevolent Finnish spirit of the household. Sometimes known as Tonttu, Tonto or Tonto.

Triglav

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Tumo-pas

A Finnish thunder-god revered in the form of an oak tree. Sometimes known as Tumo-pas.

Tuonela

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Tuonen-portti

The gate at the entrance to the Finnish. Underworld, Tuonela. Also called Tuonen-portti, Norse Helgrind or Norse Helgrind.

Tuonetar

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Tuoni

Ruler of the Finnish underworld, Tuonela. Husband of Tuonetar. Father of Kipu-Tytto, Kivutas and Vammata. In some references, known as Tuoni, Kiyamat-tora, Kiyamat-tora, Tamek-vui, Tamek-vui, Tamek-rui, Tamek-rui, Mana or Mana.

Turms

A Lapp sky-god. In some lore, occasionally identified as Turms.

Turris

A god of war in Estonia and Finland. In some references, identified as Turris, Turilas, Turilas, Turisas, Turisas, Tursas or Tursas.

Tursas

A Finnish demon living in the sea, attendant on the sea-god, Ahti. On occassion, known as Tursas, Turris, Turris, Turilas or Turisas.

Ubyi

A Finnish god said to drink blood. This being is regarded as the spirit of a sorcerer or some evil person. In some accounts, identified as Ubyi.

Udensmate

A Latvian water-goddess. Also identified as Udensmate, Mother of Waters, Mother of Waters or Attabeira.

Ugunsmate

A Latvian fire-goddess. Occasionally known as Ugunsmate, Mother of Fire or Mother of Fire.

Ukko

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Uksakka

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Uldra

A fairy race in Lapland, living under the earth. Occasionally identified as Uldra, Huldrafolk, Huldrafolk, Dwarfs, Elves, Hulderfolk, Huldra, Huldrefolk, Huldu, Huldu-folk, Huldra, Ullda or Ullda.

Undutar

A Finnish goddess of fog and mist. In some accounts, identified as Undutar, Untar or Untar.

Uni

The Finnish god of sleep. Also identified as Uni.

Unt-tongk

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Usching

A horse-god. Sometimes referred to as Usching.

Usins

A Latvian god of the morning and evening star. Occasionally called Usins.

Ut

A Finnish fire-goddess. Occasionally identified as Ut.

Utumo

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Vadatajs

A Latvian demon leading travellers. Astray. In some references, identified as Vadatajs.

vaidulis

A ghost, in Lithuanian lore. Occasionally referred to as vaidulis.

Vainamoinen

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vainnan tytto

Finnish water-maidens. Sometimes called vainnan tytto, vainnan tytar or vainnan tytar.

Vajgats

A holy island in Finnish lore. This site is used for the sacrifice of animals to the gods. In some accounts, called Vajgats.

Vaksoza

A Finnish spirit of water-mills. Sometimes known as Vaksoza.

Varjohaltija

In Finnish lore, a man's shadow-ruler. This being is said to be able to forecast the future. Also commonly referred to as Varjohaltija, haltija, haltija, haldja, haltia, ort, urt, varjohaltija, Varjohaltia or Varjohaltia.

Vedenhaltija

An evil Finnish water-spirit. Also commonly referred to as Vedenhaltija, Vedenhaltia, Vedenhaltia, Vederaj, Vederaj, Vestaera, Vestaera, Vestaeraj, Vestaeraj, Lapp Kul, Lapp Kul, Vodyanik, Russian Vodyanoi, Russian Vodyanoi or Kul.

Vejasmate

A Latvian wind-goddess, goddess of birds and woods. In some lore, occasionally called Vejasmate, Mother of the Wind, Mother of the Wind, Veja Mate or Veja Mate.

Vejopatis

A Lithuanian wind-god. Called Vejopatis.

vele

A Lithuanian spirit of the dead. In some lore, occasionally called vele, velnias, velnias, vila, Latvian velis or Latvian velis.

velis

A Latvian spirit of the dead. Sometimes identified as velis, Lithuanian vele or Lithuanian vele.

velnias

A wicked Lithuanian spirit of the dead: the devil. Sometimes known as velnias, vele, vele, vila or Latvian velis.

velns

A Latvian devil. Occasionally identified as velns, juods, juods, Estonian juudas, Estonian juudas, juutas, Finnish juutas, Finnish juutas or juudas.

Velumate

A Latvian goddess of the underworld. Occasionally referred to as Velumate, Velu Mate, Velu Mate, Kapumate or Kapumate.

vendenhaltia

A Finnish water-spirit. Also referred to as vendenhaltia, Lappish cacce-haldde or Lappish cacce-haldde.

Veralden-olmai

A Lapp supreme god. He is said to support the heavens. In some lore, occasionally referred to as Veralden-olmai, Veralden-rade, Veralden-rade, Norse Frey, Norse Frey or Varalden-Olmei.

Veralden-shuold

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Vilkakis

A Latvian werewolf. Also called Vilkakis, Vilkacis, Vilkacis, Lithuanian Vilkatas, Lithuanian Vilkatas, Slav Vlkodlak, Slav Vlkodlak or Vilkatas.

Vilkatas

A Lithuanian werewolf. Also called Vilkatas, Latvian Vilkakis, Latvian Vilkakis, Slav Vlkodlak, Slav Vlkodlak or Vilkakis.

vilkolakis

A Lithuanian wolf-spirit. In some references, referred to as vilkolakis.

Virankannos

A Finnish cat-god. In some accounts, referred to as Virankannos.

Virava

A Finnish goddess of the woods. She can appear either as an animal, a flame or a whirlwind. On occassion, referred to as Virava, Tavi-ayik, Tavi-ayik, Tava-ajik, Tava-ajik, Tapio or Tapio.

Vitza-kuguza

A Finnish spirit of the cattleyard. Sometimes referred to as Vitza-kuguza.

Vitza-kuva

A female version of Vitza-kuguzu. Also commonly called Vitza-kuva.

Vorsud

A Finnish guardian-spirit who brings. Good fortune. Sometimes called Vorsud, Vodyz or Vodyz.

Vuojala

A realm in Finnish lore, sometimes. Equated wth Pohjola. On occassion, called Vuojala, Pohjola, Pohjola, Pohja or Tuonela.

Waralden Olmai

A Lapp creator-god. In some accounts, referred to as Waralden Olmai.

Wels

A sea-god. A festival in his honour is held in October. Also commonly referred to as Wels.

White Youth

A Finnish deity regarded as the father of mankind. At times, identified as White Youth.

Yabmeaimo

The Lapp underworld, home of the dead, ruled by Yabmeakka. Called Yabmeaimo.

Yabmeakka

A god of the dead, ruler of the underworld Yabmeaimo. In some lore, occasionally called Yabmeakka.

Yarovit

A war-god and god of agriculture. Sometimes identified as Yarovit.

Zalktis

A Latvian snake-god. Sometimes known as Zalktis, Lithuanian Zaltys or Lithuanian Zaltys.

Zaltys

A Lithuanian snake-god: a green. Snake revered as a fertility symbol. Sometimes known as Zaltys, Latvian Zalktis or Latvian Zalktis.

Zasis

A Lithuanian herald of dawn. Called Zasis.

Zeidkele

An epithet for Zemnya as 'the one who grows flowers'. At times, identified as Zeidkele, Zemyna, Zemyna, Lettish Zemesmate, Phrygian Zemelo, Russian Zemlya or Slav Mata-Syra-Zemla.

Zemepatis

A Lithuanian earth-god, guardian of farmers. Brother of Zemyna. Occasionally called Zemepatis, Dimstipatis, Dimstipatis, Zemininkas, Zemininkas, Latvian Majas kungs or Latvian Majas kungs.

Zemesmate

A Lettish earth-goddess. Identified as Zemesmate, Mother of the Earth, Mother of the Earth, Zemes Mate, Zemes Mate, Lithuanian Zemyna, Lithuanian Zemyna, Zemelo, Zemlya, Phrygian Zemelo, Phrygian Zemelo, Semele, Zemyna, Russian Zemlya, Russian Zemlya, Slav Mata-Syra-Zemla or Slav Mata-Syra-Zemla.

Zemyna

A Lithuanian vegetation-goddess. Sister of Zemepatis. Occasionally called Zemyna, Zeidkele, Zeidkele, Lettish Zemesmate, Lettish Zemesmate, Zemelo, Zemlya, Phrygian Zemelo, Phrygian Zemelo, Semele, Zemesmate, Russian Zemlya, Russian Zemlya, Slav Mata-Syra-Zemla or Slav Mata-Syra-Zemla.

Zinez

A perpetual fire used by oakworshippers in Lithuania. Also identified as Zinez.
Baltic Mythology